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My master, the philosopher Ch‘ing, says :--"The Great

Learning is a book left by Confucius, and forms the gate by which first learners enter into virtue. That we can now perceive the order in which the ancients pursued their learning, is solely owing to the preservation of this work, the Analects and Mencius coming after it. Learners must commence their course with this, and then it may be hoped they will be kept from error."


1. What the Great Learning teaches, is-to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence.

TITLE OF THE WORK.—“The Great Learning." I have pointed out, in the prolegomena, the great differences which are found among Chinese commentators on this work, on almost every point connected with the criticism and interpretation of it. We encounter them here on the very threshold. The name itself is simply the adoption of the two commencing characters of the treatise, according to the custom noticed at the beginning of the Analects; but in explaining those two characters, the old and new schools differ widely. I have contented myself with the title—“ The Great Learning,” which is a literal translation of the characters.

THE INTRODUCTORY NOTE.--I have thought it well to translate this, and all the other notes and supplements appended by Choo He to the original text, because they appear in nearly all the editions of the work which fall into the hands of students, and his view of the classics is what must be regarded as the orthodox one. The translation, which is here given, is also, for the most part, according to his views, though my own differing opinion will be found freely expressed in the notes. Another version, following the order of the text, before it was transposed by him and his masters, the Ch‘ing, and without reference to its interpretations, will be found in the translation of the Le-ke. The Ch'ing here is the

2. The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, a calm unperturbedness may be attained. To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.

3. Things have their root and their completion. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.


second of the two brothers, to whom reference is made in the prolegomena. But how can we say that “ The Great Learning" is a work left by Confucius? Even Choo He ascribes only a small portion of it to the Master, and makes the rest to be the production of the disciple Tsăng, and before his time, the whole work was attributed generally to the sage's grandson.

CHAPTER I. THE TEXT OF CONFUCIUS. Such Choo He, as will be seen from his concluding note, determines this chapter to be, and it has been divided into two sections, the first containing three paragraphs, occupied with the heads of “ the Great Learning,” and the second containing four paragraphs, occupied with the particulars of those.

Par. 1. The heads of the Great Learning.--"To illustrate illustrious virtue,” =the illustrious virtue is the virtuous nature which man derives from Heaven. . This is perverted as man grows up, through defects of the physical constitution, through inward lusts, and through outward seductions; and the great business of life should be, to bring the nature back to its original purity.--" To renovate the people,”—this object of " the Great Learning” is made out, by changing the character in the text, which

“ to love,” into another signifying “ to renovate.” The Ch‘ing first proposed the alteration, and Choo He approved of it. When a man has entirely illustrated his own illustrious nature, he has to proceed to bring about the same result in every other man, till “under heaven” there be not an individual, who is not in the same condition as himself.-" The highest excellence" is understood of the two previous matters. It is not a third and different object of pursuit, but indicates a perseverance in the two others, till they are perfectly accomplished.--According to these explanations, the objects contemplated in “the Great Learning,” are not three, but two. Suppose them realized, and we should have the whole world of mankind perfectly good, every individual what he ought to be!

Against the above interpretation, we have to consider the older and simpler. 6 Virtue" is there not the nature, but simply virtue, or virtuous conduct, and the first object in “the Great Learning” is the making of one's self more and more illustrious in virtue, or in the practice of benevolence, reverence, filial piety, kindness, and sincerity. There is nothing, of course, of the renovating of the people, in this interpretation. The second object of “ the Great Learning ” is “ to love the people.”—The third object is said by Ying-tě to be “in resting in conduct which is perfectly good," and here, also, there would seem to be only two objects, for what essential distinction can we make between the first and third ? “ To love the people" is,

4. The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the empire, first ordered well their own States. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons,they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.

5. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole empire was made tranquil and happy.

doubtless, the second thing taught by “ the Great Learning.”_-Having the heads of “the Great Learning” now before us, according to both interpretations of it, we feel that the student of it should be an emperor, and not an ordinary man.

Par. 2. The mental process by which the point of rest may be attained. I confess that I do not well understand this paragraph, in the relation of its parts in itself, nor in relation to the rest of the chapter. Perhaps it just intimates that the objects of " the Great Learning " being so great, a calm, serious thoughtfulness is required in proceeding to seek their attainment.

Par. 3. The order of things and methods in the two preceding paragraphs. So, according to Choo He, does this paragraph wind up the two preceding. “ The illustration of virtue,” he says, “is the root, and the renovation of the people is the completion (literally, the branches). Knowing where to rest is the beginning, and being able to attain is the end. The root and beginning are what is first. The completion and end are what is last.—The adherents of the old commentators say, on the contrary, that this paragraph is introductory to the succeeding ones. They contend that the illustration of virtue and renovation of the people are doings, and not things. According to them the things are the person, , heart, thoughts, &c., mentioned below, which are " the root,” and the family, kingdom, and empire, which are “ the branches.” The affairs are the various processes put forth on those things.—This, it seems to me, is the correct interpretation.

Par. 4. The different steps by which the illustration of illustrious vir. tue throughout the empire may be brought about. Of the several steps described, the central one is “ the cultivation of the person," which, in

6. From the emperor down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything besides.

7. It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered. It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for.

The preceding chapter of classical text is in the words of

Confucius, handed down by the philosopher Tsăng. The ten chapters of explanation which follow contain the views of Tsăng, and were recorded by his disciples. In the old copies of the work, there appeared considerable confusion in these, from the disarrangement of the tablets. But now, availing myself of the decisions of the philosopher Ch'ing, and having examined anew the classical text, I have arranged it in order, as follows :

deed, is called “ the root,” in paragraph 6. This requires "the heart to be correct," and that again " that the thoughts be sincere." “ The heart” is the metaphysical part of our nature, all that we comprehend under the terms of mind or soul, heart, and spirit. This is conceived of as quiescent, and when its activity is aroused, then we have thoughts and purposes relative to what affects it. The “ being sincere” is explained by “real.” The sincerity of the thoughts is to be obtained by “carrying our knowledge to its utmost extent, with the desire that there may be nothing which it shall not embrace.” This knowledge finally is realized, through sexhausting by examination the principles of things and affairs, with the desire that their uppermost point may be reached.”_We feel that this explanation cannot be correct, or that, if it be correct, the teaching of the Chinese sage is far beyond and above the condition and capacity of men. How can we suppose that, in order to secure sincerity of thought and our self-cultivation, there is necessarily the study of all the phenomena of physics and metaphysics, and of the events of history?

Par. 5. The synthesis of the preceding processes.

Par. 6. The cultivation of the person is the prime, radical thing required from all. I have said above that “the Great Learning" is adapted only to an emperor, but it is intimated here that the people also may take part in it in their degree.

Par. 7. Reiteration of the importance of attending to the root.

CONCLUDING NOTE. It has been shown in the prolegomena that there is no ground for the distinction made here between so much oracular teaching attributed to Confucius, and so much commentary ascribed to his disciple Tsăng. The invention of paper is ascribed to Ts'ae Lun, an officer of the Han dynasty, in the time of the Emperor Ho, A.D. 89–

Before that time, and long after also, slips of wood and of bamboo were used to write and engrave upon. We can easily conceive how a



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CHAPTER I. 1. In the Announcement to K'ang it is said, “He was able to make his virtue illustrious. "

2. In the Tae Këă, it is said, “He contemplated and studied the illustrious decrees of Heaven."

3. In the Canon of the Emperor Yaou, it is said, “He was able to make illustrious his lofty virtue.”

4. These passages all show how those sovereigns made themselves illustrious. The above first chapter of commentary explains the illus

tration of illustrious virtue. II. 1. On the bathing-tub of T'ang, the following words were engraved :-" If you can one day renovate yourself, do so from day to day. Yea, let there be daily renovation."

2. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, “ To stir up the new people.”

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ Although Chow

collection of them might get disarranged, but whether those containing " the Great Learning” did do so is a question vehemently disputed.


1. THE ILLUSTRATION OF ILLUSTRIOUS VIRTUE. 1. See the Shoo-king, Pt V. Bk ix. 3. The

The words are part of the address of King Woo to his brother Fung, called also K'ang-shuh, on appointing him to the marquisate of Wei. The subject is King Wăn, to whose example K'ang-shuh is referred. 2. See the Shoo-king, Pt IV. Bk V. i. 2. The sentence is part of the address of the premier, E Yin, to Tae-këă, the second emperor of the Shang dynasty, B.C. 1752-1718. The subject of " contemplated is T'ae-kea's grandfather, the great T'ang. 3. See the Shoo-king, Pt I. 2. It is of the Emperor Yaou that this is said.

2. THE RENOVATION OF THE PEOPLE. Here the character “new," " to renovate,” occurs five times, and it was to find something corresponding to it at the commencement of the work, which made the Ch‘ing change the old text. But the terms here have nothing to do with the renovation of the people. This is self-evident in the first and third paragraphs. The heading of the chapter, as above, is a misnomer. 1. This fact about T'ang's bathing-tub had come down by tradition. At least, we do not now find the mention of it anywhere but here. It was customary among the ancients, as it is in China at the present day, to engrave, all about them, on the articles of their furniture, such moral aphorisms and lessons. 2. See the Book quoted, p. 7, where K'ang-shuh is exhorted to assist the emperor

" to settle the decree of Heaven, and to make the bad people of Yin into good people, or to stir up the new people,"' 1.6., new, as recently subjected to Chow. 3. See the She-king, Pt III. Bk I. i, 1. The subject of the ode is the praise of King Wăn, whose virtue led to the

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