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was an ancient State, the ordinance which lighted on it was new."

4. Therefore, the superior man in everything uses his utmost endeavours.

The above second chapter of commentary explains the reno

vating of the people. III. 1. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ The imperial domain of a thousand le is where the people rest.

2. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The twittering yellow bird rests on a corner of the mound.” The Master said, “When it rests, it knows where to rest. Is it possible that a man should not be equal to this bird ?” 3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said,

- Profound was King Wăn. With how bright and unceasing a feeling of reverence did he regard his resting-places !” As a sovereign, he rested in benevolence. As a minister, he rested in reverence. As a son, he rested in filial piety. As a father, he rested in kindness. In communication with his subjects, he rested in good faith.

4. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Look at that winding course of the K'e, with the green bamboos so luxuriant! Here is our elegant and accomplished prince!

possession of the empire by his house, more than a thousand years after its first rise. 3. The “ superior man" is here the man of rank and office probably, as well as the man of virtue ; but I do not, for my own part, see the particular relation of this to the preceding paragraphs, nor the work which it does in relation to the whole chapter.

3. ON RESTING IN THE HIGHEST EXCELLENCE. 1. See the She-king, Pt IV. Bk III. iii. 4. The ode celebrates the rise and establishment of the Shang or Yin dynasty. A thousand le around the capital constituted the imperial demesne. The quotation shows, according to Choo He, that

everything has the place where it ought to rest.” But that surely is a very sweeping conclusion from the words. 2. See the She-king, Pt II. Bk VIII. vi. 2, where we have the complaint of a down-trodden man, contrasting his position with that of a bird. “The yellow bird” is known by a variety of names. It seems to be a species of oriole. The “ Master said,” is worthy of observation. If the first chapter of the classical text, as Choo He calls it, really contains the words of Confucius, we might have expected it to be headed by these characters. 3. See the She-king, Pt III. Bk I. i. 4. 4. See the She-king, Pt I. Bk V, i. 1. The ode celebrates the virtue of the Duke Woo of Wei, in his laborious endeavours to cultivate his person. The transposition of this paragraph by Choo He to this place does seem unhappy. It ought evidently to come in connection with the work of the seventh chapter. 5. See the She-king, Pt and the issue.



As we cut and then file; as we chisel and then grind : so has he cultivated himself. How grave is he and dignified ! How majestic and distinguished! Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten.” That expres

as we cut and then file,” indicates the work of learning. "As we chisel and then grind,” indicates that of self-culture. “How grave is he and dignified !” indicates the feeling of cautious reverence. manding and distinguished,” indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. “Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten," indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreme, the people cannot for

- How com


get them.

5. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Ah! the former kings are not forgotten.Future princes deem worthy what they deemed worthy, and love what they loved. The common people delight in what they delighted, and are benefited by their beneficial arrangements. It is on this account that the former kings, after they have quitted the world, are not forgotten. The above third chapter of commentary explains resting

in the highest excellence. IV. The Master said, “In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations ?” So, those who are devoid of principle find it impossible to carry out their speeches, and a great awe would be struck" into men's minds :--this is called knowing the root. The above fourth chapter of commentary explains the root V. 1. This is called knowing the root. 2. This is called the perfecting of knowledge. The above fifth chapter of commentary explained the

II. Bk I. Sect. I. iv, 3. The former kings are Wăn and Woo, the founders of the Chow dynasty. According to Ying-tă, “ this paragraph illustrates the business of having the thoughts sincere.” According to Choo He, it tells that how the former kings renovated the people, was by their resting in perfect excellence, so as to be able, throughout the empire and to future ages, to effect that there should not be a single thing but got its proper place.

4. EXPLANATION OF THE ROOT AND THE BRANCHES. See the Analects, XII. xiii., from which we understand that the words of Confucius terminate at " no litigations," and that what follows is from the compiler. According to the old commentators, this is the conclusion of the chapter on having the thoughts made sincere, and that this is the root. Lut according to Choo He, it is the illustration of illustrious virtue which is the root, while the renovation of the people is the result therefrom. Looking at the words of Confucius, we must conclude that sincerity was the subject in his mind.

meaning of investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent," but it is now lost. I have ventured to take the views of the scholar Ch'ing to supply it, as follows :-The meaning of the expression, The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things," is this :-If we wish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man's knowledge is incomplete. On this account, the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investigation of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After exerting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the perfection

of knowledge. VI. 1. What is meant by “making the thoughts sincere," is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.


superfluous text.” 2. Choo He considers this to be the conclusion of a chapter which is now lost. But we have seen that the two sentences come in, as the work stands in the Le-ke, at the conclusion of what is deemed the classical text. It is not necessary to add anything here to what has been said there, and in the prolegomena, on the new dispositions of the work from the time of the Sung scholars, and the manner in which Choo He has supplied this supposed missing chapter.

6. ON HAVING THE THOUGHTS SINCERE, 1. The sincerity of the

2. There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and reins ;-of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying “What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

3. Tsăng the philosopher said, “What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with rever

ence !"

4. Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere. The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making

the thoughts sincere.

thoughts obtains, when they move without effort to what is right and wrong; and, in order to this, a man must be specially on his guard in his solitary moments. 2. An enforcement of the concluding clause in the last paragraph. “His heart and reins” is, literally,“ the lungs and liver,” but with the meaning which we attach to the expression substituted for it. The Chinese make the lungs the seat of righteousness, and the liver the seat of benevolence. 3. The use of “Tsång the philosopher" at the beginning of this paragraph (and extending, perhaps, over to the next) should suffice to show that the whole work is not his, as assumed by Choo He. 66 Tenis a round number, put for many. The recent commentator, Lo Chungfan, refers Tsăng's expressions to the multitude of spiritual beings, servants of Heaven or God, who dwell in the regions of the air, and are continually beholding men's conduct. But they are probably only an emphatic way of exhibiting what is said in the preceding paragraph. 4. This paragraph is commonly referred to Tsăng Sin, but whether correctly so or not cannot be positively affirmed. It is of the same purport as the two preceding, showing that hypocrisy is of no use. Compare Mencius, VII. Pt. I. xxi. 4. It is only the first of these paragraphs from which we can in any way ascertain the views of the writer on making the thoughts sincere. The other paragraphs contain only illustration or enforcement. Now, the gist of the first paragraph seems to be in “allowing no self-deception.” After knowledge has been carried to the utmost, this remains to be done, and it is not true that, when knowledge has been completed, the thoughts become sincere. This fact overthrows Choo He's interpretation of the vexed passages in what he calls the text of Confucius.

VII. 1. What is meant by “The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind,may be thus illustrated :-If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the


if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

2. When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat.

3. This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind. The above seventh chapter of commentary explains recti

fying the mind and cultivating the person. VIII. 1. What is meant by “The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this : ---Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike; partial where they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world who love, and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate, and yet know the excellences of the object of their hatred.

2. Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn.”

3. This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family. The above eighth chapter of commentary explains cultivating

the person and regulating the family. IX. 1. What is meant by “In order rightly to govern

Let the student examine his note appended to this chapter, and he will see that Choo was not unconscious of this pinch of the difficulty.


8. THE NECESSITY OF CULTIVATING THE PERSON, IN ORDER TO THE REGULATION OF THE FAMILY. The lesson here is evidently, that men are continually falling into error, in consequence of the partiality of their feelings and affections. How this error affects their personal cultivation, and interferes with the regulating of their families, is not specially indicated.


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