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Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, p. 55, martyred ...... 202 Origen, aged 18, Master of the Catechetical School, p. 43. • 203 Tertullian, pp. 142, 192, falls away into Montanism ... Philostratus writes the Life of Apollonius Tyanæus, p. 112. Noetus, heretic, pp. 120, 127 ............ Origen converts Gregory Thaumaturgus, p. 68 ..... Ammonius the Eclectic, p. 104 .......... 232 Gregory Thaumaturgus delivers his panegyric on Origen, p. 111 Plotinus at Rome, pp. 110, 118 . . . . . . . . . . 244 Babylas, Bishop of Antioch, martyred, p. 3 ....... Novatian, heresiarch, p. 17. ........... 250 Hippolytus, p. 205; martyr ........... 252 Death of Origen, aged 69, p. 110. ......... Sabellius, heresiarch, p. 121 ........... 255 Dionysius, Bishop of Rome, animadverts on Dionysius of

Alexandria, p. 129 ............. 260 Paulus of Samosata, heretic, pp. 3, 28, 176, 191, 209 ... Council against Paulus, pp. 28, 131 ; with Creed, pp. 131, 2.

197, 331, 354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Death of Dionysius of Alexandria, p. 111 ....... Paulus deposed, p. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Quarto-decimans of the Proconsulate come to an end, p. 14. 276 Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, p. 67 ...... Hosius, Bishop of Corduba, pp. 256, 7, 260, 297, 332-5 .. Meletian Schism in Egypt, pp. 244, 289—291 ..... Donatist Schism in Africa, p. 251 ......... 306 Constantius's vision of the Labarum, p. 252 .... Lucian, martyred, p. 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Edict of Milan, p. 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, p. 268. ....... 319 Arius, heresiarch, pp. 211, 243 . . . . . . . . . . 319 Alexander excommunicates and writes against Arius, pp. 223, 319 4, 244 ................ .

320 Battle of Hadrianople, pp. 247, 253 . ........ 323 Constantine writes to Athanasius and Arius, p. 254 ... Ecumenical Council of Nicæa, p. 257 ........ 325 Audius, the Quarto-deciman in Mesopotamia, p. 15 .. 325 Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, p. 273. ...... 326 Arius recalled from exile, p. 273 .... ... ... 330

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A.D. Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, deposed by the Arians, pp.

288, 371 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Eusebian Council of Cæsarea, p. 290 . . . . . . . . . 333 And of Tyre, ibid. Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra, deposed, pp.

289, 322 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 335 Athanasius banished to Treves, p. 292. ....... 335 Death of Arius, p. 276 ............. 336 Death of Constantine, who is succeeded in the East by Con

stantius, p. 288 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Death of Eusebius of Cæsarea, who is succeeded by Acacius,

p. 283. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Assemblage of exiled Bishops at Rome, Council at Rome,

p. 293 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Eusebian Council of the Dedication at Antioch, p. 294. Semi

Arian Creed of Lucian, pp. 295, 331, 353, 4 .... 341 Semi-Arian Creed of Antioch, called the Macrostich, p. 296 .. 345 Great Council of Sardica, pp. 297, 322 . . . . . . . . 347 Eusebian Council, p. 298, and Semi-Arian Creed, p. 353, of

Philippopolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Council of Milan, p. 300. ............. 347 Athanasius returns from exile, pp. 299, 371 . . . . . . 348 Formal recantation of Valens and Ursacius, p. 299. ... 349 Death of Constans, p. 312 . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Paulus of Constantinople martyred, p. 320 . . . . . . 350 Battle of Mursa, p. 287 ... Eusebian Council, pp. 323, 346, with Semi-Arian Creed of

Sirmium against Photinus, pp. 323, 331, 353-4 ... 351 Eusebian Council of Arles, pp. 323, 324. ....... 353 Eusebian Council of Milan, p. 325 . . . . . . . . . 355 Hilary exiled in Phrygia, p. 309 .......... 356 Liberius tempted, p. 327 . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Syrianus and George in Alexandria, p. 338 ...... 356 Aetius and Eumonius, Anomeans, p. 347 . . . . . . . 357 Eusebian or Acacian Conferences and Creeds of Sirmium;

fall of Liberius and Hosius, pp. 331–335, 352 . ... 358 Acacian Council of Antioch, p. 352 ......... Semi-Arian Council of Ancyra, pp. 308, 353 ...... Acacian Councils of Seleucia (p. 355) and Ariminum, p. 358 . 359 Eudoxius at Constantinople, p. 372. ........ 360

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Acacian Council of Constantinople, pp. 357, 361, 369 .... 360 Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, p. 372. Death of Constantius,

pp. 354, 362 :: .::........... 361 Julian restores the exiled Bishops, p. 364 ....... Council of Alexandria, p. 365 ........... Schism of Antioch, p. 375 . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Semi-Arian Council of Lampsacus, p. 389 . . . . . . . 365 Fifty-nine Semi-Arian Bishops accept the Homousion, p. 390 366 Apollinaris, heresiarch, p. 227 . .. . . . . . . . 369 Basil, Exarch of Cæsarea, p. 387 ........... 370 Death of Eudoxius, p. 392....370 Eighty Catholic Clergy burned at sea, ibid. . . . . . . 370 Persecution of Catholics, p. 391 ... Athanasius excommunicates one of the dukes of Lybia, p. 386

371 Death of Athanasius, ibid. . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Death of Valens, p. 391 . ............ 378 Theodosius, Emperor, p. 393 . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Gregory Nazianzen at Constantinople, ibid. ...... 379 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, pp. 385, &c. ... Sabbatius, Quarto-deciman, p. 17 ...........

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APPENDIX.

NOTE I.
THE SYRIAN SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY.

(Vide supra, p. 8.) Much has been written at home, and more has come to us from abroad, on the subject of the early Syrian theology, since this Volume was published. At that time, it was at Oxford considered a paradox to look to Antioch for the origin of a heresy which takes its name from an Alexandrian ecclesiastic, and which Mosheim had ruled to be one out of many instances of the introduction of Neo-Platonic ideas into the Christian Church. The Divinity Professor of the day, a learned and kind man, Dr. Burton, in talking with me on the subject, did but qualify his surprise at the view which I had taken, by saying to me,“ Of course you have a right to your own opinion.” Since that time, it has become clear, from the works of Neander and others, that Arianism was but one out of various errors, traceable to one and the same mode of theologizing, and that mode, as well as the errors it originated, the characteristics of the Syrian school.

I have thought it would throw light on the somewhat meagre account of it at the beginning of this Volume, if I here added a passage on the same subject, as contained in one of my subsequent works'.

The Churches of Syria and Asia Minor were the most intellectual portion of early Christendom. Alexandria was

1 “Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine," pp. 281. 323.

but one metropolis in a large region, and contained the philosophy of the whole Patriarchate; but Syria abounded in wealthy and luxurious cities, the creation of the Seleucidæ, where the arts and the schools of Greece had full opportunities of cultivation. For a time too,-for the first two hundred years, as some think,—Alexandria was the only See as well as the only School of Egypt; while Syria was divided into small dioceses, each of which had at first an authority of its own, and which, even after the growth of the Patriarchal power, received their respective bishops, not from the See of Antioch, but from their own metropolitan. In Syria too the schools were private, a circumstance which would tend both to diversity in religious opinion, and incaution in the expression of it; but the sole catechetical school of Egypt was the organ of the Church, and its Bishop could banish Origen for speculations which developed and ripened with impunity in Syria.

But the immediate source of that fertility in heresy, which is the unhappy distinction of the Syrian Church, was its celebrated Exegetical School. The history of that school is summed up in the broad characteristic fact, on the one hand that it devoted itself to the literal and critical interpretation of Scripture, and on the other that it gave rise first to the Arian and then to the Nestorian heresy. In all ages of the Church, her teachers have shown a disinclination to confine themselves to the mere literal interpretation of Scripture. Her most subtle and powerful method of proof, whether in ancient or modern times, is the mystical sense, which is so frequently used in doctrinal controversy as on many occasions to supersede any other. In the early centuries we find this method of interpretation to be the very ground for receiving as revealed the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Whether we betake ourselves to the Ante-nicene writers or the Nicene, certain texts will meet us, which do not obviously refer to that doctrine, yet are put forward as palmary proofs of it. On the other hand, if evidence be wanted of the connexion of heterodoxy and biblical criticism in that age, it is found in

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