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A.D. Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, p. 55, martyred

202 Origen, aged 18, Master of the Catechetical School, p. 43 . 203 Tertullian, pp. 142, 192, falls

into Montanism

204 Philostratus writes the Life of Apollonius Tyanæus, p. 112 217 Noetus, heretic, pp. 120, 127

220 Origen converts Gregory Thaumaturgus, p. 68

231 Ammonius the Eclectic, p. 104

232 Gregory Thaumaturgus delivers his panegyric on Origen, p. 111 239 Plotinus at Rome, pp. 110, 118

244 Babylas, Bishop of Antioch, martyred, p. 3

250 Novatian, heresiarch, p. 17.

250 Hippolytus, p. 205; martyr

252 Death of Origen, aged 69,

253 Sabellius, heresiarch, p. 121

255 Dionysius, Bishop of Rome, animadverts on Dionysius of Alexandria, p. 129

260 Paulus of Samosata, heretic, pp. 3, 28, 176, 191, 209

260 Council against Paulus, pp. 28, 131; with Creed, pp. 131, 2. 197, 331, 354

264 Death of Dionysius of Alexandria, p. 111

264 Paulus deposed, p. 3 .

272 Quarto-decimans of the Proconsulate come to an end, p. 14 276 Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, p. 67

282 Hosius, Bishop of Corduba, pp. 256, 7, 260, 297, 332-5 295 Meletian Schism in Egypt, pp. 244, 289—291

306 Donatist Schism in Africa, p. 251

306 Constantius's vision of the Labarum, p. 252

312 Lucian, martyred, p. 8

312 Edict of Milan,


313 Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, p. 268

319 Arius, heresiarch, pp. 211, 243

319 Alexander excommunicates and writes against Arius, pp. 223, 319 4, 244 ...

320 Battle of Hadrianople, pp. 247, 253

323 Constantine writes to Athanasius and Arius, p. 254

324 Ecumenical Council of Nicæa, p. 257

325 Audius, the Quarto-deciman in Mesopotamia, p. 15

325 Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, p. 273

326 Arius recalled from exile, p. 273


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p. 283

p. 293



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A.D. Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, deposed by the Arians, pp. 288, 371.

331 Eusebian Council of Cæsarea, p. 290

333 And of Tyre, ibid. Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra, deposed, pp. 289, 322

335 Athanasius banished to Treves, p. 292

335 Death of Arius, p. 276

336 Death of Constantine, who is succeeded in the East by Constantius, p. 288

337 Death of Eusebius of Cæsarea, who is succeeded by Acacius,

340 Assemblage of exiled Bishops at Rome, Council at Rome,

340 Eusebian Council of the Dedication at Antioch, p. 294. SemiArian Creed of Lucian, pp. 295, 331, 353, 4

341 Semi-Arian Creed of Antioch, called the Macrostich, p. 296 345 Great Council of Sardica, pp. 297, 322

347 Eusebian Council, p. 298, and Semi-Arian Creed, p. 353, of Philippopolis

347 Council of Milan, p. 300.

347 Athanasius returns from exile, pp. 299, 371

348 Formal recantation of Valens and Ursacius, p. 299

349 Death of Constans, p. 312.

350 Paulus of Constantinople martyred, p. 320

350 Battle of Mursa, p. 287

351 Eusebian Council, pp. 323, 346, with Semi-Arian Creed of Sirmium against Photinus, pp. 323, 331, 353-4

351 Eusebian Council of Arles, pp. 323, 324.

353 Eusebian Council of Milan, p. 325

355 Hilary exiled in Phrygia, p. 309

356 Liberius tempted, p. 327

356 Syrianus and George in Alexandria, p. 338

356 Aetius and Eumonius, Anomæans, p. 347

357 Eusebian or Acacian Conferences and Creeds of Sirmium; fall of Liberius and Hosius, pp. 331—335, 352 .

358 Acacian Council of Antioch, p. 352

358 Semi-Arian Council of Ancyra, pp. 308, 353

358 Acacian Councils of Seleucia (p. 355) and Ariminum, p. 358 . 359 Eudoxius at Constantinople, p. 372


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pp. 354, 362


Acacian Council of Constantinople, pp. 357, 361, 369 . . 360 Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, p. 372. Death of Constantius,

361 Julian restores the exiled Bishops, p. 364

362 Council of Alexandria,


362 Schism of Antioch, p. 375

362 Semi-Arian Council of Lampsacus, p. 389

365 Fifty-nine Semi-Arian Bishops accept the Homousion, p. 390 366 Apollinaris, heresiarch, p. 227

369 Basil, Exarch of Cæsarea, p. 387

370 Death of Eudoxius, p. 392.

370 Eighty Catholic Clergy burned at sea, ibid.

370 Persecution of Catholics, p. 391

371 Athanasius excommunicates one of the dukes of Lybia, p. 386 371 Death of Athanasius, ibid.

373 Death of Valens, p. 391

378 Theodosius, Emperor, p. 393

379 Gregory Nazianzen at Constantinople, ibid.

379 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, pp. 385, &c.

381 Sabbatius, Quarto-deciman, p. 17 .


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(Vide supra, p. 8.) Much has been written at home, and more has come to us from abroad, on the subject of the early Syrian theology, since this Volume was published. At that time, it was at Oxford considered a paradox to look to Antioch for the origin of a heresy which takes its name from an Alexandrian ecclesiastic, and which Mosheim had ruled to be one out of many instances of the introduction of Neo-Platonic ideas into the Christian Church. The Divinity Professor of the day, a learned and kind man, Dr. Burton, in talking with me on the subject, did but qualify his surprise at the view which I had taken, by saying

“Of course you have a right to your own opinion.” Since that time, it has become clear, from the works of Neander and others, that Arianism was but one out of various errors, traceable to one and the same mode of theologizing, and that mode, as well as the errors it originated, the characteristics of the Syrian school.

I have thought it would throw light on the somewhat meagre account of it at the beginning of this Volume, if I here added a passage on the same subject, as contained in one of my subsequent works!

to me,

The Churches of Syria and Asia Minor were the most intellectual portion of early Christendom. Alexandria was

Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine," pp. 281. 323.

but one metropolis in a large region, and contained the philosophy of the whole Patriarchate ; but Syria abounded in wealthy and luxurious cities, the creation of the Seleucidæ, where the arts and the schools of Greece had full opportunities of cultivation. For a time too,—for the first two hundred years, as some think,-Alexandria was the only See as well as the only School of Egypt; while Syria was divided into small dioceses, each of which had at first an authority of its own, and which, even after the growth of the Patriarchal power, received their respective bishops, not from the See of Antioch, but from their own metropolitan. In Syria too the schools were private, a circumstance which would tend both to diversity in religious opinion, and incaution in the expression of it; but the sole catechetical school of Egypt was the organ of the Church, and its Bishop could banish Origen for speculations which developed and ripened with impunity in Syria.

But the immediate source of that fertility in heresy, which is the unhappy distinction of the Syrian Church, was its celebrated Exegetical School. The history of that school is summed up in the broad characteristic fact, on the one hand that it devoted itself to the literal and critical interpretation of Scripture, and on the other that it gave rise first to the Arian and then to the Nestorian heresy. In all ages of the Church, her teachers have shown a disinclination to confine themselves to the mere literal interpretation of Scripture. Her most subtle and powerful method of proof, whether in ancient or modern times, is the mystical sense, which is so frequently used in doctrinal controversy as on many occasions to supersede any other. In the early centuries we find this method of interpretation to be the very ground for receiving as revealed the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Whether we betake ourselves to the Ante-nicene writers or the Nicene, certain texts will meet us, which do not obviously refer to that doctrine, yet are put forward as palmary proofs of it. On the other hand, if evidence be wanted of the connexion of heterodoxy and biblical criticism in that age, it is found in

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