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monstrous as it is, from our brethren. Surely your clemency should listen to the voice of those who cry out so loudly, 'I am a Catholic, I have no wish to be a heretic. It should seem equitable to your sanctity, most glorious Augustus, that they who fear the Lord God and His judgment should not be polluted and contaminated with execrable blasphemies, but should have liberty to follow those Bishops and prelates who both observe inviolate the laws of charity, and who desire a perpetual and sincere peace. It is impossible, it is unreasonable, to mix true and false, to confuse light and darkness, and bring into union, of whatever kind, night and day. Give permission to the populations to hear the teaching of the pastors whom they have wished, whom they fixed on, whom they have chosen, to attend their celebration of the divine mysteries, to offer prayers through them for your safety and prosperity." ad Const. i, 1, 2.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE COUNCILS.
(Vide supra, p. 279.) As the direct object of the foregoing Volume was to exhibit the doctrine, temper, and conduct of the Arians in the fourth century rather than to write their history, there is much incidental confusion in the order in which the events which it includes are brought before the reader. However, in truth, the chronology of the period is by no means clear, and the author may congratulate himself that, by the scope of his work, he is exempt from the necessity of deciding questions relative to it, on which ancient testimonies and modern critics are in hopeless variance both with themselves and with each other.
Accordingly, he has chosen one authority, the accurate Tillemont, and followed him almost throughout. Here, however, he thinks it well to subjoin some tables on the subject, taken from the Oxford Library of the Fathers, which delineate the main outline of the history, while they vividly illustrate the difficulty of determining in detail the succession of dates.
PRINCIPAL EVENTS BETWEEN A.D. 325 AND A.D. 381,
IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.
325. (From June 19 to August 25.) COUNCIL OF NICÆA.
Arius and his partisans anathematized and banished, Arius to Illyricum. The Eusebians subscribe the
Homoüsion. 326. Athanasius raised to the See of Alexandria at the age
of about 30. 328-9. Eusebius of Nicomedia in favour with Constantine. 330. An Arian priest gains the ear of Constantine, who
recalls Arius from exile to Alexandria. 331. Athanasius refuses to restore him to communion.
Eustathius deposed by the Eusebians on a charge
of Sabellianism; other Bishops deposed. 334. Council of Cæsarea against Athanasius, who refuses to
attend it. 335. Council of Tyre and Jerusalem, in which Arius and
the Arians are formally readmitted. Athanasius, forced by the emperor to attend, abruptly leaves it in order to appeal to Constantine. THE EUSEBIANS DEPOSE ATHANASIUS, AND CONSTANTINE BANISHES
HIM TO TREVES. 336. Eusebians hold a Council at Constantinople to condemn
Marcellus on the ground of his Sabellianism ; and to
recognize Arius. DEATH OF ARIUS. 337. DEATH OF CONSTANTINE. The Eusebian Constantius
succeeds him in the East, the orthodox Constans
Exiles recalled by the three new Emperors.
goes to Romel,
Papal Legates sent to
Antioch from Rome.
sius goes to Rome.
Papal Legates, &c.
sius returns to Ales.
1 The events in italics are grounded on an hypothesis of the authors who introduce them, that Athanasius made two journeys to Rome, which they adopt in order to lighten the difficulties of the chronology.
(Mainly from Tillemont.) 345.
COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (Eusebian), at which the
Macrostich was drawn up. 347. GREAT COUNCIL OF SARDICA, at the instance of the
orthodox Constans. Council of Milan against Photinus. Ursacius and Valens sue for reconcilia
tion to the Church. 319. Council of Jerusalem, at which Athanasius is present.
Athanasius returns to Alexandria. Ursacius and
recant, and are reconciled at Rome. Council at Sirmiurn or at Rome against Photinus. 350. DEATH OF CONSTANS. The Eusebian Constantius sole
Emperor. 351. GREAT COUNCIL OF SIRMIUM, at which Photinus is
deposed. First Sirmian creed, &c.