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leading interpreters, to identify that spiritual tyranny with the prophetic type. Its past correspondence with a kindred tyranny, also foretold under a like symbol, strengthens the application. And the symptoms of coincidence, in the approaching fall of both powers symbolized, seem to corroborate, in the way most to be desired, this sense of the prophecy.

It may be noticed, as additionally supporting this view of Dan. viii. 9-25., or the prophecy of the little horn of the he-goat, that the conclusion respecting it, first broached by Mr. Whitaker, has been arrived at, in these remarks, and in the section to which they are appended, by a wholly different mode of proof.

In thus regarding the Mahometan tyranny, as the power eminently prefigured by the type of the Macedonian little horn, it is far from the author's intention to infer, that it is the power exclusively prefigured. The fundamental rule of a germinant interpretation will authorize and suggest a far broader conclusion. The belief of the ancient church, both Jewish and Christian, that this prediction has relation to Antiochus *, and of so many Christian expositors, that it belongs to the Romans, may, in this more comprehensive aspect of prophecy, not be destitute of foundation. And that germinant character of the prophetic Scriptures, so strikingly exemplified in the grand prediction, St. Matth.xxiv., which includes, in one view, the impending fall of Jerusalem, and the most distant fortunes of the church of Christ, will admit of the successive application, in degrees less and more perfect, of the prediction here in question, to Antiochus, to pagan Rome, and to Mahometanism.

* For the belief of the Jewish church, Bp. Newton and others have cited the testimony of Josephus, l. x. c. xi. $ 7. It is surprising that interpreters should not have more strongly noticed the clear reference of this prophecy to Antiochus Epiphanes, by the author of the first book of Maccabees. See 1. Maccab. i. passim. The allusions in vv. 10. and 30. are peculiarly marked. It seems not to be doubted that the writer had Dan. viii. 9-25, in his eye.

The following tabular exhibition may enable the reader to draw his own conclusions, as to the intrinsic, and the relative, appropriateness of the three interpretations :

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MAHOMETANISM. 9. And out of one [Did not so come Can be said to Did so come forth, of them (the four no- forth ; but was him- have so come forth, both by its rise in table horns) came self one of the four virtue of their the Hejaz, and by its forth a little horn, notable horns.] conquestof Macedon. early conquest of

Syria. which waxed ex. [Not so: he scarce- Waxed exceeding Waxed exceeding ceeding great, to- ly made any con- great, in the geo- great, in the geoward the south, and quests ; and became, graphical directions graphical directions toward the east, and in the end, exceeds of the prophecy. of the prophecy. toward the pleasant ing little.] land.

10. And it waxed So waxed great, So waxed great, by So waxed great, by great,

by persecution of the the utter destruction the destruction of even to the host of Jewish priesthood, of the holy city, tem- Christian churches, heaven;

and of “ the holy ple, priesthood, and and persecution of and it cast down some people.”

people, of the Jews.

Christian priesthood of the host and of

and people. the stars to the ground, and stamped

upon them.

11. Yea, he mag- So magnified him "So magnified them. So magnified itnified himself even self, by sacrilege, and selves, by the judg- self, by making Mato the prince of the impious insults of ment and crucifixion homet a greater prohost; Jehovah. of our Lord.

phet than Christ. and by him the daily So literally took So literally took So figuratively, by sacrifice was taken away the Jewish saw away the Jewish sa- the destruction of away ; crifices. crifices.

Christian altars. and the place of his

Fulfilled by, in the Fulfilled by, in unsanctuary was cast

final destruction of paralleled destrucdown.

the temple.

tion of Christian

temples. 12. And an host

Fulfilled by subwas given him

stitution of Mahoagainst the daily sa.

metan, for Christian, crifice, by reason of


- of the transgression,

host of the little horn, for “ the host of heaven;" by reason of sins of eastern

church. and it cast down the

Fulfilled, by protruth to the ground;

selyting and persecuting zeal of the whole Mussulman

priesthood and peoand it practised and

ple; and, by prosprospered.

perity of religion keeping pace with that of empire.



MAHOMETANISM. 23. A king A king A republic.

A kingdom of fierce counten. of fierce countenance “A nation * of of fierce counten. ance, in acts. fierce countenance."

ance, as a destroying

Deut. xxviii. 50. apostasy. and understanding

Augury their fa

So Mahomet, as dark sentences,

vourite study. author of the Koran,

and pretended interpreter of the mys

teries of futurity. shall stand up, - in

So stood up, with So stood up, but at the latter time of

great chronological a much later period. their kingdom.

exactness. 24. And his power

[Not applicable to : Eminently applies shall be mighty, but

they fought their to: not by his own pow

own way, from the for it prevailed by er;

possessionof one city, the power of the host to the empire of the given to its king : world.]

i. e. through the spi. rit

of fanaticism which infected all the conquered na

tions. and he shall destroy [Destroyed; but So destroyed, tem- So destroyed, temwonderfully, partially.)


porally and spirit.

ually. and shall prosper and [Not fulfilled in.] Did

prosper and

Did prosper and practise,


practise. and shall destroy the [Persecuted, but Destroyed the po- Destroyed the pomighty and the holy failed to destroy.] lity and nation of the lity of eastern, and people.


wasted universal

Christendom. 25. And through [Remarkable enough Remarkable for Its treaties only for his policy also he for low cunning; but political skill; and truces, to be broken shall cause craft to did not prosper by for the fruits reaped when advantageous prosper in his hand; his schemes.] by their policy. to infringe them. and he shall magnify [So most eastern

In times of peace, himself in his heart; despots.] and by peace shall

In combats of gla. remarkable for the destroy many :


fatal success of its schemes for perver

sion of Christians. he shall stand up also

Stood up against, Crucified the son against the Prince

and crucified our of God afresh, in its of princes ;


character as an anbut he shall be bro. Subdued by a mes. [Not broken with- tichristian apostasy. ken without hand. sage from the Ro- out hand, but by the Its time not yet man senate.

strong hand of the accomplished ; manbarbarians of the ner of end, conseNorth.]

quently, unknown.

* “ A nation,” not a king. The distinction should be attended to; for the language of Scripture, even in its most mysterious prophecies, is always minutely accurate. So Dan. ix. 26. “ And the people of the prince that shall come, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary :" con

In this table, the evidences for the fulfilment of the prophecy by Antiochus, and by the Romans *, are taken from the standard commentators: for the marks of its fulfilment by Mahometanism, the author is himself partly responsible. It is left with others to decide, which of the three powers appears to supply the fullest accomplishment.

serves :

formably with the very letter of this prediction, history records that Titus used the greatest efforts to save the temple; but the infuriated soldiery fired it before his eyes, regardless of threats and intreaties.

* Each attempt of the commentators to appropriate this prediction to pagan Rome, seems worded, as it were, to establish its proper application to Mahometanism. To reconcile it to the Romans, Bishop Newton ob

“ Their actions within the dominions of the goat, and not their affairs in the western empire, are the principal subject of this prophecy. But their actions, which are most largely and particularly specified, are their great persecution and oppression of the people of God : which renders it probable, that the appellation of the little horn might be given them for the same reason, that the great persecutor and oppressor of the saints in the western empire is also called the little horn. IT IS THE SAME KIND OF POWER, AND Diss. XV.

The similarity of the two symbols naturally implies the similarity of the two powers symbolized :— but how constrained and imperfect the Bishop's parallel, as applied to pagan Rome and popery? while, on the other hand, transfer but the application to popery and Islamism, and the parallel is full, natural, and perfect. They are truly and indeed “the same kind of power, and therefore might be signified by the same name."



No. IV.



In the passage of the present work (Vol. I. pp. 202—204.), which the following observations are designed to illustrate, the crusades have been indicated as the prophetic “tidings out of the North," spoken of by Daniel, xi. 44., which should trouble, or impede," the king of the North :" that is, which should arrest, for a season, the victorious career of the

Turkish power.

The evidences, both geographical and historical, which support this interpretation, and which might have been out of place in the body of the work, are too important, and too interesting, to be omitted in the Appendix. A short review of these evidences shall form, therefore, its concluding Number,

1. To begin with the geographical proofs : Europe, as situated to the north-west of Asia, may be taken, in a general sense, to answer the prophetic description of “ the North.” But, added to the geographical position of the continent at large, there arises, in the next place, the further consideration, that the crusading armies were chiefly levied in the north, or north-west, of Europe: Germany, England, the Netherlands, and the north of France, may be said to have furnished the main strength and flower of those armies, from

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