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the age of Godfrey of Bouillon to that of our first Edward. And, as it was from the northward that the main battle of the crusaders began its march, so, from a north-western direction, that march conducted it across the European continent and the Danube, into Illyricum and Thrace, countries even then overrun by the Turks*, and which now compose the north of modern Turkey.

Again, on passing into Asia, the Latin powers made their entrance through the northern, or north-western, frontier of the Turkish kingdom of Roum; and advancing thence, traversed Asia Minor from the northward, towards the goal of their great enterprize, Syria and the Holy Land.

And thus, in whatever aspect we contemplate the crusades, whether as to the countries whence they chiefly emanated, or the directions which they commonly took, the geography of these vast expeditions will still be found most accurately to correspond with the words of Daniel's prophecy :-“ And tidings out of the North shall trouble him."

2. But a not less perfect fulfilment of this prediction is to be found in the history of the holy wars; or rather in that of the previous colonization and settlement of Europe.

During a course of centuries preceding the crusades, Europe had been inundated by the ceaseless stream of barbarian emigration from the regions of the North. By the incessant influx, both continent and islands were first depopulated, and then re-peopled. And while, by land, the Vandals, the Goths, the Visigoths, the Huns, the Heruli, and the Francs, converted the European continent into one great northern colony t; by sea, the Saxons, and the Danes,

* See Vol. II. p. 149.

+ “ Des débris de l'empire Romain d'Occident, s'étaient formées, sur le sol de l'Europe, une foule de dominations, à la tête desquelles étaient, pour la plupart, les chefs de ces peuplades du Nord, qui avaient renversé l'empire.” M. C. Villers, Essai sur la Réform. de Luth. p. 42. A Paris, 1820. Les peuples du Nord, comme les Saxons, les Suisses, les Hollandais, les Anglais,” &c. Ib. p. 122.

poured into the islands in numbers sufficient to sweep away, and to replace, the ancient inhabitants.

So far as respected the character and origin of its population, therefore, any movement from our quarter of the globe might, as early as the commencement of the ninth century, be appropriately indicated in prophecy as “tidings out of the North.” For, in the language of prophecy, change of seat by no means implied a change of national designation. Accordingly, in the same prophet Daniel, we find the Turkish power, long subsequent to its establishment in the lesser Asia, retaining its primitive appellation of “ The King of the North."

But, towards the middle of the ninth century, there began a new northern emigration, which quickly overspread the European coasts and islands; which extended its ravages to the remotest extremities of the West *; but which erected, within the

space

of little more than one hundred years, potent monarchies and principalities, in the north, and south, and east of Europe. Too well known by their heroic deeds, it is almost needless to name the NORMANS; were it not that their name immediately connects them with the terms of Daniel's prediction; as do their chivalrous actions, with the whole history of the crusades.t

Nursed in the arms of victory, animated by the spirit of successful adventure, and impelled by devoted fidelity to the service of the church, this race of conquerors, at that time but recently emerged “from the snows of Scandinavia,” flew to arms from all quarters, at the first summons of the Roman Pontiff, to form the van-guard of the first, as they composed the flower of each succeeding, crusade. Carrying into the East, in their very name, the interpretation of “ tidings out of the North,” the Normans of Italy and Sicily, of France and of England, early acquired, and throughout maintained, the pre-eminence among the champions of the holy wars. The achievements of Tancred, of Bohemond *, of Robert Duke of Normandy, and last and greatest, the unrivalled deeds of Richard Cæur de Lion, identify, not only by the testimony of their friends, but by the confession of their terrified enemies, the prowess of the Norman crusaders, with the tidings out of the North, which should trouble the King of the North.t

* See Vol. II. p. 194.

+ “ The powerful succour,” says Mr. Gibbon, speaking of the third crusade, "of Flanders, Frise, and Denmark, filled near a hundred vessels; and the northern warriors were distinguished in the field by a lofty stature, and a ponderous battle-axe." Decline and Fall, vol. xi. ch. lix. p. 142. The historian verifies his text, by the following striking testimony of an anonymous chronicler : “ Northmanni et Gothi, et cæteri populi insularum, quæ inter occidentem et septentrionem sitæ sunt, gentes bellicosæ, corporis proceri, mortis intrepidæ, bipennibus armatæ, navibus rotundis, quæ Ysnachiæ dicuntur, advectæ.”

* “ It is in the person of this Norman chief, that we may seek for the coolest policy and ambition, with a small alloy of religious fanaticism. His conduct may justify a belief, that he had secretly directed the design of the pope, which he affected to second with astonishment and zeal : at the siege of Amalphi, his example and discourse inflamed the passions of a confederate army; he instantly tore his garment to supply crosses for the numerous candidates; and prepared to visit Constantinople and Asia, at the head of ten thousand horse, and twenty thousand foot.” Decline and Fall, vol. xi. p. 35.

+ The terror, fight, and miserable end of Bagi Seian, the Seljukian prince of Antioch, who, on the approach of the crusaders, fell literally a victim to his own fears,

- as described by Abulfeda, — form a wonderful commentary on this prediction of Daniel. “ Anno ccccxci, (qui die 8. Dec. A. C. 1097 cæpit] commemoranda venit Francorum in Syriam invasio, per quam, inter ceteras ejus urbes, præcipuam ceperant Antiochiam. - Quæ oppressio Bagi Seianum, Turcomanum, ejus urbis tum dominum, — adeo terrebat, ut inops consilii trepidusque [Arab. lip lo lugs good quasi rebus jam conclamatis, de nocte aufugeret. Altero autem mane, sibi jam redditus, discusso terrore, singulaque secum per otium repu

.

vae mihi! dixit] liberorum suorum, et familiæ, et Muslemorum; quos in urbe relictos hosti permiserat. Quæ tristis recordatio tanta eum percellebat doloris vehementia, ut animo delinquens equo decideret. Fugæ quidem comites eum allevare tentabant in equum; sed viribus omnino ersolutus inhærere jumento non valebat: quapropter eum, sibi consulentes, prostratum relin. The noc

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In support of this application of the prophecy, it may be stated, respecting the first crusade, that the passage for the army of Godfrey through the Lesser Asia (the seat of the Turkish power) was first opened by the sword of Tancred, and by his capture of the fortified cities of Tarsus and Mal. mistra ; that the iron bridge over the Orontes, the natural defence of Antioch, was forced by Robert Duke of Normandy, whose success unbarred for the crusaders the single avenue of admission ; that the French and Norman princes headed the nocturnal assault, and first mounted the walls of the metropolis of Syria; and that, in the moment of final triumph, the standard of the cross was first planted on the walls of Jerusalem itself, by the arm of the heroic TANCRED.

The details of these striking facts, the author prefers submitting in the words of Mr. Gibbon, rather than in his own. On the field of Dorylæum, “ the fainting fight,” says the historian of the empire, “ was sustained by the personal valour of Bohemond, Tancred, and Robert of Normandy. The Norman standard was first planted on the walls of Tarsus and Malmistra. — The capital of Syria was protected by the river Orontes; and the iron bridge, of nine arches, derives its name from the massy gates of the two towers, which are constructed at either end. They were opened by the sword of the Duke of Normandy: his victory gave entrance to three hundred thousand crusaders. turnal surprise (of Antioch) was executed by the French and Norman princes, who ascended in person the scaling ladders that were thrown from the walls. — In the pillage of public and private wealth (which ensued on the sack of Jerusalem), the adventurers had agreed to respect the exclusive property of the first occupant; and the spoils of the great mosque, seventy lamps, and massy vessels, of gold and silver, re

quebant. Itaque jacenti Bagi Seiano, et animam agenti, amputabat præ. tereuns aliquis Armenus lignator caput, et ad Francos Antiochiam deferebat. Annal. Muslem. tom. iii. pp. 314-317. edit. Reisk. * Decline and Fall, ch. lix.

warded the diligence, and displayed the generosity, of Tancred.” *

A more important prize, the principality of Antioch, fell to the share of the interested and ambitious Bohemond. Founded by the address of this politic chieftain, and maintained by his own valour, and that of his kinsman the Marquis of Montserrat, the Norman principality of Antioch became, indeed, “ a bit in the mouth, and a hook in the nostrils,” of the prophetic horsemen of the Apocalypse : it was immediately by this Latin power, that the Turks were held again, bound within the line of the Euphrates, during a period of one hundred and seventy years: an historical fact, which, in a permanent and peculiar sense, appropriates to the Normans a leading part in the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecy, “and tidings out of the North shall trouble him." +

The rank in the Christian host allotted, by the judgment of the Turks and Saracens themselves, to the prince of Antioch, supplies no inconsiderable confirmation of this

“ In the caliph Mostali's estimate of their merit, or their power,” Mr. Gibbon tells us, “ the first place was assigned to Bohemond, and the second to Godfrey."

“ And tidings out of the North shall trouble him. I” We

view.

* Decline and Fall, ch. lix.

+ For the sore thorn in their side which the Christian state at Antioch proved to the Turks, compare Abulfeda, ut supr. tom. iii. pp. 370—373. 386, 387.

| The annals of Abulfeda are copious upon the similar trouble experienced by the Turkish powers from the prophetic “tidings out of the East,” or the irruption of the Tartars. See Abulfeda, tom. iv, v. passim; but especially iv. p. 296, 297., where the sufferings of the Mussulmans from the Moguls are represented as far surpassing those of the Jews, under the rod of Nebuchadnezzar. Tom. iv. p. 474, 475., we find a mention of the singular alliance, alluded to by Gibbon, between the Tartars and the Franks, for the deliverance of Jerusalem. And tom. ii. p. 202, 203., the Tartars are distinctly stated to have been the destroyers of the Turkish kingdom of Roum.

May the author be permitted to add, that he was himself first led to understand Dan. xi. 44. of the crusades, and the Tartar irruptions, by the

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