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to represent the doctrine of the gospel to any churches, suitably to their particular case and circumstances, whether he had just before treated of it in an epistle, or not. So that the agreement between the epistles to the Romans and the Galatians, is no proof that they were written very soon one after another. Thirdly, when Paul says, ch. ii. 10, “ The same which I also was forward to do:" he cannot intend the collections made in Macedonia and Greece, with which he was going to Jerusalem. If that had been his meaning, he would have expressed himself more particularly, like to what he says to the Romans, ch. xv. 25–27. What he says here, he might have said, when at Ephesus, before he set out for Macedonia, and indeed at any time, and in any place. For he had been always mindful of the poor in Judea. I apprehend, that the apostle's words are to be interpreted in this manner.
" The same, which I also had endeavoured to do, or had been careful to perform :" referring to his conduct, even before that proposal of the three apostles at Jerusalem: and intending, probably, in particular, the contributions brought by himself and Barnabas from Antioch to Jerusalem, some while before, as related Acts xi. 29. Which contributions, as may be well supposed, had been promoted by our apostle's exliortations. Fourthly, St. Paul says to the Galatians in this epistle, ch. i. 6,“ | marvel, that
ye soon removed from him that called you unto the grace of Christ, unto another gospel.” Those expressions cannot possibly suit the date assigned by Mill, that is, after the passover of the year 58. Which must have been above four after even Paul's second journey in the country of Galatia.
Another opinion has been proposed by the ingenious and thoughtful authorf of Miscellanea Sacra, and embraced by Dr. Benson: that the epistle to the Galatians was written at Corinth, when the apostle was first there, and made a long stay of a year and six months. Whilst Paul was there, he received tidings of the instability of his converts in Galatia, with which he was much affected. Whereupon he wrote this epistle, and sent it by one of his assistants. At that season he might well say at the beginning of his address to them: “I marvel, that ye are so soon removed from him that called you unto the grace of Christ.”. Nor is there in the epistle any hint of his having been with them more than
The epistle therefore was written at Corinth, or perSee there the Abstract of the Scripture History of the Apostles, p. 31, and the Postscript to the Preface, p. 56-58.
8 History of the first Planting the Christian Religion. B. 3. ch. v. sect xi. Vol. ii. p. 118, 119. first edit. p. 136, 137. second edit
haps at Ephesus, when Paul was first there, in his way to Jerusalem, as mentioned, Acts xvii, 19–21.
This opinion is proposed by the above-mentioned author, as his own. And I make no doubt, that it was so, and the fruit of his own inquiries and observations. Nevertheless it is not quite new. Say L'Enfant and Beausobre, in their general preface to St. Paul's epistles : · Web find not in the epistle to the Galatians any mark that can enable us to determine with certainty, at what time, or in what place, • it was written. It is dated at Rome in some printed copies • and manuscripts. But there is nothing in the epistle itself 6 to confirm that date. Paul does not here make any men* tion of his bonds, as he does in all his epistles written at
Rome. He says indeed, ch. vi. 17, that " he bears in his ·body the marks of the Lord Jesus.” But he had often
suffered, before he came to Rome. There are therefore i ' some learned chronologers, who place the epistle to the • Galatians immediately after the two epistles to the Thessalonians. They think it was written between the third • and fourth journey of Paul to Jerusalem, and between his • first and second journey into Gaļatia. This opinion ap* pears to me very probable. Før since the apostle says, 65 he wonders, that they were so soon turned unto another
gospel,” this epistle must have been written a short time . after he had preached in Galatia. Nor can we discern in • the epistle any notice of the second journey which St. Paul 'made into this country. For this reason it is thought that * the epistle to the Galatians was written at Corinth, where • the apostle made a long stay, or else in some city of Asia,
particularly Ephesus, where he stayed some days in his • way to Jerusalem, Acts xviii. 19–21. Therefore, in all • probability, the epistle to the Galatians was written from • Corinth, or from Ephesus, in the year 52 or 53.
Nothing could be said more properly. And I think this date may be further confirmed by some other considerations. Paul says to the Corinthians, xvi. 1, “ Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given orders to the churches of Galatia, so do ye.” Which shows that at the writing of that epistle to the Corinthians, in 56, he had a good opinion of bis converts in Galatia, and that he had no doubt of their respect to his directions. Which, probably, had been sent to them from Ephesus, during his long abode
* Sect. xlii. p. 24-26.
| Here, in the margin, are put the names of Usher and L. Capellus, without any references. Nor have I found the places where this opinion is maintained by them.
there, by some one or other of his assistants. This good temper of the Galatians may be supposed owing to the letter sent to them sone time before, and to his second visit to them, related, Acts xviii. 23.
And now we shall be better able to account for what appears very remarkable. When Paul left Corinth, after his long stay there, he went to Jerusalem, having a vow. In his way he came to Ephesus, Acts xviii, 19-21, “ And when they desired him to tarry longer with them, he con sented not. But bade thein farewell, saying: I must by all means keep this feast that cometh at Jerusalem. But I will return again unto you, if God will.” When we read this we might be apt to think that Paul should hasten back to Ephesus, and return thither presently after he had been at jerusalem. But instead of so doing, after he had been at “ Jerusalem, he went down to Antioch. And after he bad spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia, and Phrygia, in order, strengthening the disciples,” ver. 22, 23. We now seem to see the reason of this course.
At Corinth he heard of the defection of many in Galatia. Whereupon he sent away a sharp letter to them. But considering the nature of the case, he judged it best to take the first opportunity to go to Galatia, and support the instructions of his letter. And both together had a very good effect. Gal. iv. 19, 20, “ My little children, of whom I travail in birth again- I desire to be present with you, and to change my voice. For I stand in doubt of you :" or, I am perplexed for you. Now then, we see the reason of the apostle's not coming directly from Jerusalem to Ephesus. Flowever he was not umindful of his promise, and came thither, after he had been in Galatia.
Upon the whole, the epistle to the Galatians is an early epistle. And, as seems to me most probable, was written at Corinth, near the end of the year 52, or at the very beginning of the year 53, before St. Paul set out to go to Jerusasalem by the way of Ephesus. But if any should rather think, that it was written at Ephesus, during the apostle's short stay there, in the way from Corinth to Jerusalem, that will make but very little difference. And still according to our computation, this epistle was written at the beginning of the year 53.
Ch. vi, 11, “ Yek see how large a letter I have written unto you with my own band."
Hereby some understand the apostle to say, that this, with what follows to the end of the epistle, was written with his
k Ιδετε πηλικους υμιν γραμμασιν εγραψα τη εμυ χειρι.
own hand. So Jerom, and Grotius. Others understand St. Paul to speak of the whole epistle. So thought Chrysostom, and Theophylact, and p Thcodoret, and the author of the Commentary upon thirteen of St. Paul's epistles. Which interpretation is approved by Wolfius.
“ How long a letter I have written unto you.” Which some interpret after this manner : “ In what large letters I have written unto you,” intending the deformity, or inelegance
of the characters. Which sense is also found in diverss ancient authors.
But it is not approved of either by + Beza, or u Wolfius. | Hi qui circumcidi Galatas volebant, disseminaverant, alia Paulum facere, alia prædicare. Hanc opinionem quia non poterat Paulus apud omnes præsens ipse subvertere -seipsum per literas repræsentat. Et ne aliqua suppositæ epistolæ suspicio nasceretur, ab hoc ipso usque ad finem manu suâ ipse perscripsit, ostendens superiora ab alio exarata. Hieron. in ep. ad Gal. T. IV.
m In aliarum epistolarum fine quædam scribebat suâ manu. 1 Cor. xvi. 21; 2 Thess. üi. 17; et Col. iv. 18; cætera manu alienâ, ut videre est, Roman. xvi. 22. Hic vero Paulus suâ manu scripsit omnia quæ sequuntur, ut recte putat Hieronymus. Id autem multum erat in homine adeo occupato, et, ut videtur, non multum assueto Græce scribere. Quantis literis, id est,
quam multis.' Solent adjectiva magnitudinis poni pro adjectivis ad numerum pertinentibus. Sic Græcum Togo, tanti,' utroque sensu usurpatum. Grot. ad Galat. vi. 11.
* Ενταύθα εδεν αλλο αινιττεται, αλλ' ότι αυτος εγραψε την επιςολην απασαν, ο πολλης γνησιοτητος σημειον ην. κ. λ. Chr. in loc. Τ. Χ. p. 727. Β. • In loc. T. II. p. 492.
Ρ Πασαν, ώς εoικε, την δε την επιςολης AUTOg Eypaya. Theod. in loc.
9 Auctoritatem dat epistolæ -Ubi enim holographa manus est, falsum dici non potest. In loc. ap. Ambros. in App. p. 230.
| Idem vero [Grotius] quamvis præeunte Hieronymo, errat, quando hæc verba non ad totam hanc epistolam, sed ad ea tantum, quæ inde usque ad finem leguntur, vult referri. Rectius Chrysostomus.
Addit idem causam, cur totam epistolam suâ manu exarârit, ut nempe omnis vobelas suspicio dio ypapo hoc præcideretur ijs, qui dicere alioquin poterant, nonnulla illi inserta, quæ Apostoli sententiæ non responderent. Wolf, in loc.
8 Το δε πηλικoις, εμοι δοκει και το μεγεθος, αλλα την αμορφιαν των γραμματων εμφετινων λεγειν, μονονεχι λεγων ότι ουτε αρισα γραφειν ειδως, όμως ηναγκασθην δι' εμαυτ8 γραψαι, ώσε των συκοφαντων εμφραξαι το σομα.
Chr. ubi supr. p. 727. C.
Το δε πηλικους γραμμασι, τινες, μεν μεγαλοις, τινες δε φαυλοις ήρμηνευσαν. Εγω γαρ, φησιν, εγραψα την επιςολης, καιτοι μη γραφων εις καλλος. Theod. in loc.
t.Quam longis,' andekong. Ad verbum quantis.' Vulgata qualibus.' In quo explicando miror cur se tantopere torqueant interpretes, dum aliiad sublimitatem sententiarum referunt, ut Hilarius, alii ad ipsa literarum elementa, quæ grandiuscula fuerint,--alii ad deformitatem characterum, quasi Paulus imperitus fuerit pingendarum literarum, ut exponit Theophylactus, Chrysostomum secutus.--Sunt autem sane longiores epistolæ Romanis et Corinthiis inscriptæ, sed alienâ manu exaratæ, &c. Bez. ad loc.
u . Ecce quantis,' i. e. quam multis, literis vobis scripsi.' Ita recte Grotios, addens, adjectiva magnitudinis, pro adjectivis ad numerum pertinentibus,
They say that this is as long as any of St. Paul's epistles, excepting the epistle to the Romans, the two epistles to the Corinthians, and that to the Hebrews. I inay add another thought: that according to our computation this is the third apostolical epistle, written by St. Paul, and is much longer than either of those to the Thessalonians, which had been written before. However, undoubtedly, the apostle has regard to the quantity of his own hand-writing. The rest of his epistles were written by others, while he dictated, (as is generally done by eminent men, inuch engaged,) and himself wrote only a few words, or sentences, at the end : whereas this epistle was all in his own hand-writing.
And the original word is elsewhere used for epistle, or letter. Acts xxviii. 21, 66 We have not received letters out of Judea concerning thce,"
So far therefore as I am able to judge, our English version is very right. “ Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with my own band.”
That is w Beza's translation. Le Clerc,* in his French Testament, and y Beausobre, translate in the like manner.
In Beausobre's remarks upon the New Testament, published after his death, is this note upon the text we are considering : 6" Howź large a letter, Aikos ypaupaci.' • Some, says Theodoret, explain this of the largeness of the
letters, others, that the letter was ill written, as if the apos6 tle bad said : “ I have written to you with my own hand,
though I do not write well." St. Jerom, in his commentary • upon this place, says, he had heard somewbat of the like • kind from somebody. But he does not seem to approve of
poni solere, quemadmodum et Græcum rogol utroque sensu usurpetur. Longius autem a vero aberrant, qui to nikog ad designandam characterum, quibus usus sit, magnitudinem,' spectare putant, ut andıra ypanjata sint literæ majusculæ.-Addit (Le Cene] Apostolum hanc epistolam non potuisse appellare indexnv respectu longitudinis, cum longiores scripserit alias. Imo vero scriptionem non tam multorum verborum, quam quod eam totam suâ manu scripserat, qui alias cæteris pauca quædam subscribere consueverit, longam appellat. Præterea hæc ad Galatas, si tres priores, et unam ad Hebræos exceperis, reliquas omnes longitudine excedit. "Wolf. in loc.
Ημεις 8τε γραμματα περι σε εδεξαμεθα απo της Ιεδαιας. " Videtis quam longis literis vobis scripserim meâ manu. Bez. * Voyez quelle grande lettre je vous ai écrite de ma main. Le Clerc. y Voyez quelle grande lettre je vous ai écrite de ma propre main. B.
% · Quelle grande lettre.' Quelques uns, dit Théodoret, expliquoient ce mot de la grandeur des lettres, et d'autres de ce que la lettre étoit mal écrite, les caractéres mauvais : • Je vous ai écrit de ma main, quoique j'écrive mal.' St. Jérom, dans son Commentaire sur cet endroit dit avoir oui dire quelque chose d'approchant, à quelqu'un dont il ne paroit pas approver la pensée. Beaus. Remarques sur le N. T. p. 466.