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“baths; in which, the Jews especially, as is usual with them, ‘readily assisted.’ We are assured by Jerom, that the Jews anathematized the christians under the name of Nazareans, in their synagogues, thrice every day. So he writes in " his commentary upon Is. v. 18, 19. And again" in like manner upon ls. xlix. 7, and " upon the first chapter of the prophecy of Amos. Epiphanius says, “ that P the Jews three times every day “anathematized the Nazareans in their synagogues. For ‘they were more especially displeased with them, because, ‘ though they were Jews, they believed in Jesus as the Christ.’ All which may be very true. The Jews, as Jerom says, anathematized in their synagogues all christians under the denomination of Nazareans; and yet, as Epiphanius says, they were more especially displeased with those believers who were of the seed of Israel. These passages of ancient christian writers do sufficiently attest the early and continued enmity of the unbelieving Jews, to all christians of every denomination. There are still some other things to be here taken notice of. For some time after our Saviour's ascension, they aspersed the character of Mary, our Lord’s mother, and reproached him with a spurious nativity. When these aspersions were first given out, we cannot say exactly; but they are in 4 Celsus, who wrote against the christians about the middle of the second century; and doubtless he had them from the Jews: they are also in the Talmudical writings, as we shall see hereafter.

" Dicuntur autem hac ad principes Judaeorum, qui supra arguti sunt in avaritiã et luxuriá; quod, provocati a Domino ad poenitentiam, et postea ab apostolis ejus, usque hodie perseverant in blasphemiis; et ter per singulos dies in omnibus synagogis sub nomine Nazarenorum anathematizant vocabulum christianum. In Is. cap. v. T. 3. p. 53. " Ipse enim bonus pastor posuit animam suam pro Ovibus Suis, et contempsiteam; qui abominationi est genti Judaeorum, cui ter per singulos dies sub nomine Nazarenorum maledicunt in synagogis suis. Id. in ls, c. xlix. T. 3. . 353. O antiquumque furorem etiracundiam tenentes, usque hodie in synagogis suis Sub nomine Nazarenorum blasphemant populum christianum, et, dummodo nos interficiant volunt igne comburi. In Amos. cap. i. p. 1378. fin. P Ov plovov Yap oi rov Isèawv trauðsc trpog rerec kskrmvrat puto oc, a\\ avtsapevot sw0ev, Kat usanç huspac, kat rept £otrepav, Touc rmg juspac, Örs suxag strutéAeolv čv raig avrov avvaywyaig, strapovrat avroug, kat ava6epuaTúagu, paakovreg, Ört strukarapagat 6 680g rag Naåwpatag. Kat Yap Tetoic Treptogorspov evex80i, 6ta to atro Isèawy avrag ovrac, Imaav kmpvootty swat Xptsov, K. A. Epiph. H. 29. sect. ix. p. 124. ' Wid. Orig. Contr. Cels. l. i. nuin. 28, et 32, p. 22, et 26.

In order to disparage our Lord's miracles, they gave out that they were performed by magical arts, such as he bad learned in Egypt. This calumny also is in Celsus; and doubtless he had it from the Jews. It is also in the Talmudical writers, as we shall see hereafter.

In the time of the emperor Adrian, about the year of Christ 132, the Jews rebelled under the conduct of the impostor Barchochebas, who set up himself for the Messiah, ‘who inflicted heavy penalties upon the christians, to in‘duce them to deny and blaspheme Jesus Christ; and if “ they did not, he ordered them to be put to death.” So writes Justin Martyr, who lived at that time. Some have censured Justin for saying that Barchochebas tortured christians only; but without reason, as seems to me. For certain, the christians were, above all men, objects of his and his followers’ enmity : nor could any be called upon to deny Jesus Christ, but such as had received him for the Messiah. Of the sufferings of the christians at that time, Eusebius speaks in t his Chronicle, and in " his Ecclesiastical History; not now to refer to any V others.

* Vid. Orig. Contr. Cels. l. i. sect. 28. p. 22. * Kat Yap ev rq, vvy yeyevnuévy tačaikop troMepp, Bapyoxesłac, č rmg Isèawy atrosagewg apxnyerng, x0tstavec povec etc rupwptag östvac, et pin apvolvro Ingev row Xptsov, kat (3\agonuousy, skexevaaro arraysobat. Ap, i. p. 72. E. Par. p. 62. Bened. * Cochebas dux judaicao factionis molentes christianos adversum Romanum militem ferre subsidium omnimodis cruciatibus necat. Chron. p. 167. * H. E. l. 4. c. 6. * Vid. Moshem. de Reb. Christianor. ante Const. p. 238, 239.

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. His time, works, and character. II. The state of things

in Judea in the time of our Saviour, and some while before. III. Our Lord’s predictions concerning the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem, and the miseries to be endured by the Jewish people—with the several signs preceding those calamities, as recorded in the gospels. IV. The dates of several events ; viz. the commencement and the duration of the war, and the siege of Jerusalem—when the temple was burnt, and the city taken. V. Of the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place. VI. The actual accomplishment of our Saviour's predictions concerning divers events that should precede the great calamities coming upon the Jewish people—the gospel preached all over the world—the disciples of Christ persecuted in many places—declensions among his followers—famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in divers places—wars and commotions. VII. The occasion of the Jewish war with the Romans, as represented by Josephus. VIII. The history of the Jewish war from Josephus, with his account of the siege of Jerusalem, and the miseries endured therein, and the demolition of the temple and city of Jerusalem, and the desolation of the land of Judea, being his testimony to the fulfilment of our Lord’s predictions of those events. IX. Reflections upon the preceding history, and the value of the testimony of Josephus. X. Other ancient writers, who have borne witness to the accomplishment of our Lord’s predictions in the conquest of Judea by Vespasian and Titus—Justus of Tiberias—Pausanias—Antonius Julianus—Suetonius—Tacitus—Dion Cassius–Philostratus—The arch of Titus.

JOSEPHUS, son of Matthias, of the race of the Jewish

priests, and of the first course of the four and twenty, by his mother descended from the Asmonean family, which for

a considerable time had the supreme government of the Jewish nation, was born in the first year of the reign of Caligula, of our Lord * 37. He was educated together" with Matthias, who was his own brother by father and mother, and made such proficience in knowledge, that when * he was about fourteen years of age, the high priests, and some of the principal men of the city, came frequently to him to consult him about the right interpretation of things of the law. In the sixteenth year of his age he retired into the wilderness, where he lived three years an abstemious course of life, in the company of Banus. Having fully acquainted himself with the principles of the three sects, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes, he determined to follow the rule of the Pharisees. And being now nineteen years of age, he began to act in public life. Felix, when procurator of Judea, sent some priests of his acquaintance for a trifling offence to Rome, to be tried before Caesar. Josephus, hearing that they behaved well, resolved to go to Rome to plead their cause: but he had a bad voyage; the ship was wrecked ; and out of six hundred persons, not more than eighty were saved. Soon after his arrival at Rome, he became acquainted with Aliturius, a Jew by birth, but a stage-player, in favour with Nero. By him he was introduced to Poppaea, the emperor's wife; by whose interest he procured that the priests should be set at liberty. Josephus, who never omits what may be to his own honour, adds, that * beside that favour, he also received from Poppaea many valuable presents; and then he returned home. This voyage was made, as he * says, in the 26th year of his age, which must have been in the 62d or 63d year off Christ. Upon his return to Judea he found things in great confufusion, many & being elevated with hopes of advantage by

* Joseph. in Vitā suá. cap. i. * Cap. 2.

* Eru Čs traig ww Trept Tsogapsokauðskarov £rog––avvuovrayv aču rajy apxtepewv kat row rmg iroNewg trparww intrep Ta trap' opus trept row voupww. akpubes spov ri yuwwal. Cap. 2.

——usya)\wv 6s 8wpewy orpog to evepysoug Tavry rvXov trapa IIortrijiaç.

C. 3. * Mer’ sukogov kav ćkrov svtavrov sig Popumv plot ovversoev avagnval. Ib. f Felix must have been removed from his government some while before that; which may be thought to create a difficulty in this account: but it may be observed, that Josephus had heard of the good behaviour of those priests at Rome before he left Judea; consequently they had been some while at Rome before he set out on his journey. &

8 —kai troX\ec sitt rp 'Popatov atrozanet usya opovavrac. Wit. c. 4.

a revolt from the Romans. He says, he did what lay in his power to prevent it, though in vain. Soon after the beginning of the war, in the year of Christ 66, (when he must have been himself about thirty years of age,) he was sent from Jerusalem to command in " Galilee; where, having ordered matters as well as he could, and made the best preparations for war, by fortifying the cities in case of an attack from the Romans, he was at length shut up in the city of Jotapata: which, after a vigorous defence, and a siege of seven and forty days, was taken by Vespasian, on the first day of July, in the 13th year of Nero and the 67th of our Lord. When that city was taken, by Vespasian's order strict search was made for Josephus; for if" that general was once taken, he reckoned that the greatest part of the war would be over. However, he had hid himself in a deep cavern, the opening of which was not easily discerned above ground. Here he met with forty persons of eminence, who had concealed themselves, and had with them provisions enough for several days. On the third day the Roman soldiers seized a woman that had been with them. She made a discovery of the place where they were ; whereupon Vespasian sent two tribunes, inviting him to come up, with assurances that his life should be preserved. Josephus, however, refused. Vespasian therefore sent a third tribune, named Nicanor, well known to Josephus, with the like assurances. Josephus, after some hesitation, was then willing to surrender himself. But the men who were with him exclaimed against it, and were for killing him and themselves rather than come alive into the hands of the Romans. Hereupon he made a long speech unto them, showing that it was not lawful for men to kill themselves, and that it was rather a proof of pusillanimity than courage: but all without effect. He then proposed an expedient; which was that they should cast losts, two by two, who should die first. He who had the second lot should kill the first, and the next him, and so on, and the last should kill himself. It happened that Josephus and another were preserved to the last lot. When all the rest were killed, he without much difficulty persuaded that other person to yield up himself to the Romans. So they two escaped with their lives. This" has been judged to be a remarkable providence,

* Wit. cap. 7, 8. De B. J. l. 2. c. 20. De B. J. l. 3. cap. 7. Conf. cap. 8. Sect. 9. k psytsin Yap my poupa ra Troxsputs Amosug. De B. J. l. 3. c. 8. in. | De B. J. l. 3. c. 8. sect 1–7.

* See Tillotson's Serm. num. 186. Vol. 2. p. 564.

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