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, and with him forty more, go out of the city and hide themselves in a cave. Vespasian sends Nicanor to Joseph with offers of peace and safety if he would surrender. But the forty men who were with him chose rather to die by their own hands. After long arguing, Joseph proposeth that they should cast lots till they were all killed. 'Which being done, there were none left alive but Joseph and one more, who at length consented to surrender. Joseph " then calls to Nicanor, and they yield up themselves to him. Vespa sian, when Joseph was brought before bim, treated him kindly, and carried him about with bim froin place to place, together with * Agrippa.
So far there is a great agreement between our Josephus and Joseph Ben Gorion. But now they differ. For Josippon entirely omits the compliments which our Josephus paid to Vespasian.
Upon y the death of Nero, and after the short reigns of Galba and Vitellius, Vespasian is declared emperor by the soldiers in Judea ; and, after some hesitation, he is persuaded to accept of the diadem from them.
Some while after that, Vespasian takes part of the army and goes to Rome; but leaves the other part with Titus to carry on the siege of Jerusalem. However he orders Titus to stay at Alexandria till he shall send to him from Rome.
• When a Vespasian left Judea to go to Rome, he took with him Agrippa, and his son Monbaz, Jest they should rebel against him. With himself and them he also took me Joseph the priest, bound with iron chains. And when Vespasian was come to Rome, he ordered that Joseph should be sent to prison, and kept bound there.
Vespasian upon his arrival at Rome was received joyfully by the senators and all the people in general. And in a
* Cap. 72. p. 315-319.
Cap. 73. p. 319, &c. * Cum ergo audivisset Vespasianus Titum filium suum, recta visa sunt verba illius in oculis ejus, et clementiâ usus est erga Josephum sacerdotem, et prohibuit, quo minus moreretur gladio, et constituit eum principem, et magnum inter principes suos, et secum ducebat de urbe in urbem cum Agrippå rege. c. 73. p. 321. y Cap. 75. p. 333, 334.
Cap. 77. p. 340. a Abiit itaque Vespasianus Romam. Cumque pergeret, ut iterum acciperet illic coronam regni, duxit secum Agrippam regem, et Monbaz filium ejus. Dixerat enim, ne forte rebellent contra me. Duxit præterea cum eis, et secun, meipsum Josephum sacerdotem, vinctum catenis ferreis. Cap. 77. p. 340.
b. Tunc jussit, et vinxerunt me in domo carceris. Agrippam vero et filium ejus ipsorum arbitrio reliquit. Ib.
341. c Postridie illius diei congregati sunt omnes senatores Romani, ut Vespasianum Cæsarem crearent, secundum jus Cæsareæ dignitatis pro consuetudine
short time he is inaugurated with great solemnity. Agrippa and his son are allowed to be with the senators; and Joseph himself, though a prisoner, is allowed by the keeper of the prison to have a place where he may see all.
Thed coronation is then described by him in a pompous manner; seven electors of the empire attending, agreeably to the coronations of the emperors in late ages, a good while after the time of Charles the Great, as e Gagnier observes in a note which I sball place below. Basnage thinks that f this Hebrew Joseph intends the coronation of Otho the first, or his son Otho the second. And he considers this article as a proof that Josippon lived in the tenth, or rather in the eleventh century.
Soon after his coronation,' as this author says, Vespasian & was offende
was offended with Agrippa upon account of some calumnies cast upon him, which he had received from wicked men of the Jewish nation : whereupon he slew Agrippa, and his son Monbaz, with the sword. Which was done three years and a half before the desolation of the house.'
So writes this author. Supposing Agrippa to have been put to death at this time, I do not conceive how it could be done three years and a half before the destruction of the temple. Besides, Agrippa survived the Jewish war and the destruction of Jerusalem many years: as is attested not only by Josephus, but also by ancient medals h still extant.
Romana. Porro Agrippa et filius ejus erant cum illis. Atego supplex rogavi principem domûs carceris-Et inveni gratiam in oculis ejus, et introduxit me in consessum regni, ubi fieri debebat inauguratio Cæsaris; attamen vinctum catenis ferreis et collocavit juxta se in loco, unde vidi omnia quæ facta sunt. Ib. p. 341.
d Cum itaque perventum est ad illum locum, accedunt ad eum septem reges coronis suis insignes, quas acceperunt de manu Cæsaris, electi vero jussu Senatûs Romani, &c. ibid.
Fingit hic fabulator Josephum, id est, seipsum a Vespasiano Romam perductum fuisse, ut ibi spectator adesset ejus coronationis, quam describit cum omni illâ cæremoniâ 'inaugurationis Cæsarum, qualis longe post tempora Caroli Magni, sub Romanis pontificibus instituta fuit, præsentibus nempe et ministrantibus septem Imperii Electoribus, cum toto illo apparatu, quem fuse et lepide narrat. Gagn. p. 341.
Tous ces caractères nous font croire, que le Josèphe Hébreu n'a vécu qu' à la fin de dixième, ou plutôt dans l'onzième siécle, et que le couronnement, dont il a laissé la déscription, est celui d'Othon I. ou de son fils Othon II. Basnag. ut supr. sect. xxiv. p. 1563.
8 Post aliquot autem dies, ex quo Vespasianus Cæsar factus fuit, indignatus est adversus Agrippam, quia calumniati sunt eum impii Israël, dicentes eum cogitâsse perfide agere in illum, et idcirco misisse literas in Jerusalem eâ de re. Interfecit itaque illum et filium ejus Monbaz gladio. Quod quidem contigit tribus annis cum dimidio ante desolationem doinûs, &c. c. 77. p. 344.
h Vid. Gagnier, in loc.
Rabbi Isaac, in his Munimen Fidei, written in the i sixteenth century, has quoted this passage of our author. And I have put down his words in the margin: though, perhaps, they may be taken notice of again bereafter.
Ink the same year and month that Agrippa and his son were put to death, Vespasian sent for Joseph, and spake comfortably to him, and released him from his bonds. 'Joseph complained of the death of Agrippa; but Vespasian assured him he had good reason for so doing. And now Vespasian sent Joseph to Titus at Alexandria, with a letter of recommendation. Joseph goes to Alexandria. Titus! and all bis counsellors rejoiced at the arrival of Joseph :
For he was full of the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and valour, the spirit of knowled
and of the fear of the Lord.' Is. xi. 1, 2. After m sultation it was determined to go up to Jerusalem and besiege it. For Joseph knew that it was of the Lord, and that it was not possible that the word of the Lord should be turned back, Titus therefore went from Alexandria to Judea.
In" the first year of the reign of Vespasian, in the tenth month, and the seventh day of the month, came Titus with Joseph, with all his forces, and his army, to the delightful city of Cæsarea ; where he was employed in collecting his forces from all parts, till he had completed his army for besieging Jerusalem. There he stayed all the winter till the
| Verba, · Væ pastori meo nihili derelinquenti gregem,' [Zach. xi. 17.] Agrippam respiciunt, qui Romam se contulit, atque inde evocavit Vespasianuai, hujusque privignum Titum, adversus Hierosolymas. Tandem autem irasci illi cæpit Vespasianus, eumque unâ cum Monbaso filio securi percussit, tribus et dimidio annis ante templi desolationem. Cæterum ob illam, quæ inter regem Agrippam et improbos duces factiosorum exorta fuerat contentionem, denique desolatum fuit templum, uti ex Josepho constat. Munimen Fide, p. 417.
k Cap. 78. p. 344. Postea profectus Josephus Româ venit Alexandriam. Cumque audîsset Titus de adventu Josephi, lætatus est plurimum ipse, et omnes seniores et sapientes qui cum illo erant. Josephus enim plenus erat spiritu sapientiæ et intelligentiæ, spiritu consilii et fortitudinis, spiritu scientiæ, et timoris Jehovæ. cap. 78. p. 346.
m Postea consilium inierunt inter se, ut ascenderent in Jerusalem, et obside. rent eam. Sciebat enim Josephus a Jehovà hoc esse, neque possibile esse, ut verbum Jehovæ convertatur retrorsum. Ib. p. 347.
" Anno primo regni Vespasiani, mense decimo, die septimo mensis, venit Titus cum Josepho, et cum omnibus copiis suis et exercitu suo, in urbem Cæsareæ, gratissimam et desideratissimam omnibus, qui illam viderunt. cap. 79.
Mansitque illic, donec complerentur dies brumæ, et dies hiemis, et donec venirent dies Abib. Toto autem hoc anno primo regni Vespasiani, quo erectus est super regnum Romanorum --ingruerunt prælia durissima in medio Jerusalem inter habitatores ejus per crudelitatem ira
month of Abib, or March. During the whole year, the first year of the reign of Vespasian, were grievous wars and fightings in the midst of Jerusalem. From the time that Vespasian left Judea to go to Rome, there to receive the confirmation of the empire, in summer and winter were perpetual quarrels and contentions between the three parties, into which the people of Jerusalem were divided, and headed by three leaders, Simon, John, and Eleazar. “For p at that time God poured out a spirit of insensibility in the midst of Jerusalem :' Is. xxix. 10. And they destroyed, as? this writer says, a thousand and four hundred garners, filled with things that might have been useful in a siege; for there were in them provisions sufficient to maintain two hundred thousand people for twenty years. But by the madness of these robbers all was consumed by fire : which brought on the famine in Jerusalem.
And now this writer inakes a long and grievous lamentation over' Jerusalem: which in the Hebrew original, as Gagnier observes, is a sort of metrical composition, not in use among the Jews till long after the supposed time of the author.
Titust draws out his numerous forces, and reviews them in a plain near Cæsarea, and then moves toward Jerusalem.
It is not my intention to relate particularly from this writer, as I have done from Josephus, the attacks of Titus, and the defences of the people in the city. I shall pass over a
Whilst u they were hard pressed by the Romans, the three parties within agreed, and joined together, in opposing the common enemy. But, as soon as the Roinans gave them any respite, the three rulers of the robbers within exercised a cruel war with one another; insomuch that the blood of the citizens ran like a torrent out of the gates of Jerusalem in the sight of the Romans, who could not forbear to pity them.' Those expressions are extravagant. But what is here said may be compared with Josephus, de B. J. 1. 5. cap vi. sect. 1. Upon this occasion our author made another lamentation.
et furoris : et percutiebant unusquisque proximum sinum, nullâ interpositâ quiete aut morâ. Quinetiain nulla cessatio belli fuit inter illos totâ hieme, ut post est universæ terræ ; sed et æstate et hieine duraverunt prælia Simonem inter et Jehochananem. Porro tertius fuit Eleazarus. Atque hoc ab ipso die, quo proficiscens Vespasianus de terrâ Juda abiit Romam, ut illic de novo susciperet regnum Cæsareæ dignitatis, secundum jus consuetudinis Romanæ. Ibid.
Eo anno effudit Jehova spiritum vertiginis in medium Jerusalem-p. 348. 9 Porro numerus horreorum illorum in Jerusalem erat mille et quadringentorum : et omnia plena commeatibus victûs pro tempore obsidionis. Teinpore autem, quo Vespasianus venit in urbes Galileæ, seniores et viri fide digni, qui æstimaverunt quantitatem proventùs horreorum illorum, invenerunt in illis esse commeatus et victus pro ducentis mille animabus per viginti annos. Et tunc, in bello latronum, hæc omnia cremata sunt. Cæpitque fames in Jerusalem.
Lamentatus est itaque Josephus lamentationem hanc super Jerusalem, et dixit
c. 80. p. 350–355. s Lamentatio Josephi. In Hebræo est carmen rhythmicum; quod genus proëseos multis post seculis a recentioribus Judæis, Arabum exemplo, usurpatum est. Gagn. not. p. 350.
Postea Titus venit in planitiem Cæsarex cum exercitu, et recensuit exercitum suum, &c. cap. 81. p. 355.
u Quando instabat prælium Romanorum, omnes ad invicem coalescebant,
After having carried on the siege for some while, Titus draws off from the city, and for several days ceaseth to make any attacks. And by Joseph, who addresseth them in a very long speech, in their own language, he makes them offers of peace, that he might preserve their temple and city. But they hardened their necks, and would not hear. In w this speech he tells them, not disagreeably to what the Greek Josephus says, [de B. J. 1.5. cap. ix. p. 350.] that, for their sins, the waters of Siloam bad before failed on a sudden: but now they flowed plentifully in the camp of the Gentiles fighting against them. In this speech he goes on and says: . Though I* am in the camp of the Romans, I am
illos a se.
tanquam unus vir ad pugnam; et pugnabant contra Romanos, fugabantque
Et postquam fugaverant a se Romanos, revertebantur ad se, et incipiebant pugnare unusquisque in fratrem suum. Tuncque fiebat prælium magnum et durum inter tres principes latronum crudelium, donec egrederetur sanguis extra portas Jerusalem, tanquam torrens scaturiens de scaturigine aqua
Videbantque Romani sanguinem egredientem de portis Jerusalem. Et conterebatur cor eorum in medio ipsorum, et flebant, et dolebant eâ de re. Josephus autem sacerdos stabat cum eis. Tunc lamentatus est Josephus lamentationem hanc iterum super Jerusalem. Et prolocutus est Josephus alte proferens vocem lamentationis, et dixit, &c. c. 82. p. 362, &c.
"Tunc temporis jussit populum suum discedere a muro extra urbem, et cessare a bello per aliquot dies, ut clamaret pacem in auribus Judæorum. cap. 84. p. 369-377. et cap. 85. p. 378–385.
* Nunc autem videte malum vestrum esse maximum, et quod Jehova non sit in medio vestri, quia propter bella, quæ geritis unusquisque cum fratre suo, mox brevi siccatæ sunt apud vos aquæ Siloë. At vero in castris Gentium, quando congregatæ sunt contra vos, ecce aquæ Siloë redundant, et fluunt instar torrentis, et fiuvii magni pleni super omnes margines suos. cap. 85. p. 383. m.
* Porro, quamvis ego sim in castris Romanorum, tamen reputor idem, ac si essem vobiscum ; quia ecce nunc uxor mea dilectissima, carissima, vobiscum est, uxor nempe juventutis meæ. Neque respuo illam; et, licet filii ex eâ non sint mihi, nihilominus illam diligo plurimum, cum sit ex familiis nobilissimis et optimis populi Dei, et populi virorum. Quin et pater meus et mater mea, infelices, pauperes, sancti, senes, provecti in diebus apud vos sunt. Nam et pater meus est centum et trium annorum hodie. Mater vero mea octoginta et quinque annorum est hodie. Ego vero paucos et malos, et per varias tribulationes et ærumnas sexaginta et quatuor annos exegi, ac nondum attigi terminum, qui postulet mortem juxta viam naturæ, &c. cap. 85. p. 383. fin.