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to be the two first written epistles of St. Paul. The time and place of writing them may be deduced from the epistles themselves, and from the history of St. Paul's travels in the book of the Acts. Some have thought, that " the first at least, if not also the second, was written at Athens. But I suppose it to be now generally allowed, that" both these epistles were written at Corinth : whereby we are also assured of their time. For it was formerly shown to be probable, that f St. Paul came to Corinth before the end of the year 51, and stayed there till the beginning of the year 53. In the Synopsis ascribed to Athanasius, thes first epistle to the Thessalonians is said to have been written at Athens, and" the second, very absurdly, at Rome. Theodoret, as before quoted, saw these to be the two first written epistles of the apostle. The first he supposed to have been written at Athens, and the second not long after, either at Athens or Corinth. For he does not seem to say distinctly, at which of these two cities the second was written. Nevertheless I suppose it may be shown that they were both written at Corinth. St. Paul came from Thessalonica to Berea: which place he left in haste, because of the violence of the Jews, who came thither from Thessalonica, and “stirred up the people,” Acts xvii. 10–13. “And then immediately,” says St. Luke, “the brethren sent away Paul, to go as it were to the sea. But Silas and Timothy abode there still. And they that conducted Paul, brought him unto Athens. And receiving a commandment unto Silas and Timothy to come to him with all specd, they departed,” ver, 14, 15. Accordingly, as we may suppose, Silas and Timothy did soon come to him. And Paul, having great concern for the Thessalonians, whilst he was at Athens, sent Timothy to them. As he says, 1 Thess. iii. 1, 2, “Wherefore, when we could no longer forbear, we thought it good to be left at Athens alone. And sent Timothy, our brother and minister of God, and our fellow-labourer in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and comfort you, concerning your faith.” From Athens Paul went to Corinth, where he stayed a year and six months. There Timothy
* Ante Pauli vincula omnium prima scripta est ad Thessalonicenses utraque. Scriptoe autem omnino videntur dua istae epistolæ Athenis. Lud. Cap. Hist. Ap. p. 63.
* Pearson, Ann. Paulin. p. 11—13. Mill. Proleg. num. 4. et 6.
f See vol. v. ch. xi.
& Synops. S. S. n. 66. ap. Athan. T. II. p. 196.
* Num. 67. ib. p. 107. " Vol. v. ch. cxxxi.
* Praef, in Ep. Pauli, T. III p. 3.
came back to him from Thessalonica. Comp. Acts xviii. 5, and 1 Thess. iii. 6. And Silas, or Silvanus, and Timothy are joined with the apostle in the inscription of the epistle. Near the end of this epistle, ch. v. 27, are these remarkable words: “I charge,” or adjure, “you by the Lord, opkigw ipas Tov kvptov, that this epistle be read unto all the holy brethren.” It is likely, that from the beginning all christian assemblies had readings of the Scriptures of the Old Testament. Paul, knowing the plenitude of the apostolical commission, now demands the same respect to be paid to his writings, with those of the ancient prophets. his is a direction fit to be inserted in the first epistle written by him. And the manner in which it is given, suggests an argument that this was his first apostolical epistle. The second epistle to the Thessalonians appears to have been written soon after the first, and at the same place. And Silvanus and Timothy are joined together with the apostle in the inscription of this epistle, as well as of the former. These two epistles therefore I suppose to have been written at Corinth, in the year of Christ 52. Which is also the opinion of Mill, and others. But by whom these epistles were carried to the Thessalonians, we do not perceive. Some objections have been made against the above-mentioned date of these two epistles. But the point is so clear, that I do not think it worth the while to prolong this argument in examining them. They who are curious, may see those objections well answered by Dr. Benson, in the second edition of" his history of the first planting the Christian religion.
The epistle to the Galatians is inscribed after this manner: “Paul, an apostle, -and all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia.” Upon which Jerom observes, ‘ In" other epistles Sosthenes and Silvanus,
* Prolegom. num. 4–7. " Vol. ii. p. 119–122.
* In allis epistolis Sosthenes et Silvanus, interdum et Timotheus, in exordio. praeponuntur: in hac tantum, quia necessaria erat auctoritas plurimorum, omnium fratrum nomen assumitur. Qui et ipsi forsitan ex circumcisione erant, et à Galatis non contemptui ducebantur. Plurimum quippe facit ad populum corrigendum multorum in ună resententia atque consensus. Quod autem ait, ‘Ecclesiis Galatiae,' et hoc notandum, quia hic tantum generaliter non adunam ecclesiam unius urbis, Sed ad totius provinciae scribat, ecclesias:
‘and sometimes also Timothy, are mentioned at the begin‘ning : but in this, for adding the greater weight and au‘ thority, are put “all the brethren:” who, perhaps too, ‘were believers of the circumcision, and not despised by the ‘Galatians. And the consent of many is of great use to ‘satisfy people. “To the churches of Galatia.” Here also, ‘as he proceeds, it is to be observed, that in this place only, ‘Paul writes in general, not to the church of one city only, ‘ but to the churches of a whole province : and that he calls ‘them churches, whom afterwards he reproves as corrupted ‘with error. Whence we learn, that a church may be un‘derstood in a two-fold manner: both of that which has no ‘spot, or wrinkle, and is indeed the body of Christ; and of ‘ that which is assembled in the name of Christ, without ‘complete and perfect virtues.’ Tertullian" seems to have thought this one of St. Paul’s first written epistles; as has been observed by Grotius,” who transcribed the passage, though long, into his preface to the epistle to the Galatians. Fabricius' likewise has taken notice of it. Theodoret, the Synopsis of sacred scripture, ascribed to Athanasius, and the author of the Argument in OEcumenius, reckon this among the epistles written at Rome, and conseQuently a late epistle. But I see no ground for that opinion, there not being in the epistle any notice taken of an imprisonment at the time of writing it. However Lightfoot" was also of the same opinion. He
et “ecclesias' vocet, quas postea errore arguat depravatas. Ex quo noscendum, dupliciter ecclesiam posse dici; et eam, quae non habet maculam aut rugam, et vere corpus Christi sit; et eam, quae in Christi nomine absolue plenis perfectisque virtutibus congregetur. In ep. ad Gal. cap. i.T. IV. p. 225. ° ——ab illo certe Paulo, quiadhuc in gratiâ rudis, trepidans denique, ne in vacuum cucurrisset, aut curreret, tunc primum cum antecessoribus Apostolis conferebat. Igitur, si ferventer, ut adhuc neophytus, adversus Judaismum aliquid in conversatione reprehendendum existimavit, passivum Scilicet convictum, postmodum et ipse usu omnibus omnia futurus, ut omnes lucraretur, Judaeis quasi Judaeus, eteis qui sub lege, tamguam sub lege; tu illam solius conversationis, placiturae postea accusatori Suo, reprehensionem suspectam vis haberi, etiam de prædicationis erga Deum prevaricatione. Tertull. adv. Marc. l. i. cap. 20. p. 443. P. Tertullianus, in primo adversus Marcionem, hanc epistolam inter primas Pauli fuisse existimat, &c. Grot. Pr. in ep. ad Gal. * Scripsisse hanc epistolam adhuc neophytum, etin gratiâ rudem, adeoque inter primas non dubitat affirmare Tertullianus.——Fabr. Bib. Gr. 1. 4. cap. v. tom. III. p. 155. * Tag usv čn a\\ac atro rmg ‘Paping atressi\s, kat ravrmy psy %yapat rmv Trpog Takaraç Ypapmvat. Theod. Praef, in ep. Paul. T. III. p. 5. B. * Ap. Athan. T. II. p. 194. * Arg. ep. ad Gal. ap. CEcum. T.I. p. 713. u Vol. I. p. 323.
supposeth this to have been the first epistle written by St. Paul after his arrival at Rome. He says it was carried by Crescens, arguing from 2 Tim. iv. 10. Which epistle to Timothy he thinks was written at Rome soon afterwards. Chrysostom" says, this" epistle was written before that to the Romans. And in like manner” Theophylact, probably, borrowing from him. Divers learned moderns have thought, that this epistle was written at Ephesus, after Paul's arrival there from his journey, related in Acts xviii. 23. and xix. I. consequently, after that the apostle had been a second time in Galatia. To this purposey Lewis Capellus, "Witsius, and “Wall. This likewise seems to have been the opinion of "Pearson. For he placeth this epistle in the year 57, after the first to the Corinthians, and before Paul left Ephesus. But I do not discern his reasons for so doing. Grotius" thought it difficult to assign the time when this epistle was written: but conjectures, that it was written about the same time with that to the Romans. Fabricius says, “the" design of the epistle is to dissuade ‘the Galatians from putting their neck under the yoke of
* See of this work, vol. v. ch. cxviii. " Aoket Öe plot kat | Tpog Takarag Trporspa swat rmg trpog 'Poplatec. Chrys. ProDem.ep. ad Rom. T. IX. p. 427. D. * A\\a kat | Tpoc Taxarac orporspa est Tavrmc trpoc 'Pupialec. Theoph. Arg, ep. ad Rom. 3 Per idem tempus, nempe sub finem biennii Ephesini, videtur omnino scripta epistola ad Galatas, &c. Cap. Hist, ap. p. 69. * Epistola ad Galatas temporis sui hos characteres habet. Primum, quod non diu post Pauliab is discessum scripta esse videatur. Sic enim ipse, cap.i. 6. Affuerat autem is Paulus paulo antequam proficisceretur Ephesum. Act. xviii. 23. coll. cum cap. xix. 1. Unde probabiliter saltem infertur Ephesi esse datam. Specialius, datam esse “sub finem biennii,' quod Paulus Ephesi exegit, inde colligit Capellus—Wits. de Vit. Paul. sect. viii. num. xxxii. * “About this time, A. D. 55, when Paul had been at Ephesus a little while, “he is supposed to have written his epistle to the Galatians.’ Wall's Notes upon the N. T. p. 164. * Scribit primam ad Corinthios epistolam.——Scribit epistolam ad Galatas. Per Demetrium Epheso pellitur. Annal. Paulin. p. 15. A. D. 57. * Tempus, quo scripta est hac epistola ad Gallogra-cos epistola, sicut designate indicare non possum, ita videre mihi videor, non longe abfuisse ab eo tempore, quo ad Romanos scripta est epistola. Gr. Pr. ep. ad Galat. * Argumentum epistolae est, Galatas dehortari, ne jugo legis Mosaicae iterum collum animasque supponerent. Idem dissuaserat Romanis, sedad illos, quos nondum praesens ille docuerat, et scribit minus familiariter, et prolixius is capita christianæ fidei expomit. Ad Galatas vero, et brevius omnia, et tamguam doctor ipsorum, ita ut nec a gravi increpatione sibi temperet. Non possum tamen improbare eorum sententiam, qui non diu post epistolam ad Romanos in itinere Hierosolymam versus A. C. 58. exaratam hanc epistolam arbitrantur. Fabr. ubi Supra, p. 155.
“ the Mosaic law. And,’ says he, “to the like purpose the ‘ apostle writes to the Romans. But them he had never seen, ‘ and he treats them very respectfully, and enlargeth upon “ the doctrine of the gospel with greater prolixity. To the ‘ Galatians he writes more briefly, and as their master, and . ‘ not without some severity in his reprehensions. He adds, ‘ that he is inclined to their opinion, who suppose this epistle ‘to have been written not long after that to the Romans, ‘ and in the way to Jerusalem, in the year of Christ 58.’ Mill being a man of great judgment in these things, and what he says appearing at first sight plausible, I shaîtranscribe it below. He thinks, that this epistle was not written until after that to the Romans, probably at Troas, or some other place in Asia, as Paul was going to Jerusalem. And he thinks that Paul refers to the collections lately made in Macedonia and Greece, Gal. ii. 10. And the apostle writes not only in his own name, but also in the name of all the brethren, mentioned Acts xx. 4. who were with him at Troas, and accompanied him to Jerusalem. Moreover, this epistle was written by the apostle with his own hand, and the more easily and readily, though in a journey, because he had just before treated the same argument in his epistle to the Romans. This epistle therefore is placed by Mill at the year 58. Upon all which I beg leave to remark, as follows. First, that those words, “all the brethren which are with me,” need not to be understood of those who were with Paul at Troas, and were setting out with him for Jerusalem. Thereby may be intended the brethren of some other place where Paul was. Secondly, the apostle Paul was able at any time
* Paulo post dictatam hanc, quae Romanis inscripta est, scripsit Paulus epistolam ad Galatas, ut apparet ex cap. ii. 10. Ó cat sorečaga avro rero Troumoat. His enim verbis aperte indicat Apostolus, epistolam hanc post ministerium seu studium, quod eleemosynis pro ecclesiá Hierosolymitană colligendis impendebat, scripsisse se, dum aoristo utitur, eatrečaga Trotmoat. In itinere itaque versus Hierosolymam versatus D. Paulus alicubi hanc epistolam exarásse videtur, et quidem Troade fortassis, ubi Septem dies moratus est; postguam in Asiam veniens comperisset Galatas ad aliud evangelium aro raxswc translatos fuisse. Audità nempe, jam ut videtur ab appulsu ejus in Asiam, istă atrosagig, arrepto calamo, propriá manu, contra quam factum in aliis epistolis, (exceptă forte unā ad Philemonem,) totam istam scripsit epistolam, acrem et objurgatoriam, nomine suo, omniumque, qui cum ipso erant, fratrum jam Troade, Sopatri, Aristarchi, Secundi, Gaii, Tychici, Trophimi, Titi, Silae, alioruin. Scripsit autem eo celerius, et festimantius, quod idem argumentum in hac epistolà prosequeretur, quod tractaverat paulo ante in epistolâ ad Romanos, cujus fere sensus in hanc transfundit.—Scripta est statim, ut dixi, post epistolam ad Romanos, anno aerae vulgaris lviii. Proleg. num.