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Page 152 - Boscovichian foundation for the elasticity of solids with no inter-molecular vibrations is the subject of §§ 62 — 71 below. A few preliminary remarks here may be useful. § 18. Every infinite homogeneous assemblage* of Boscovich atoms is in equilibrium. So, therefore, is every finite homogeneous assemblage, provided that extraneous forces be applied to all within influential distance of the frontier, equal to the forces which a homogeneous continuation of the assemblage through influential distance...
Page 400 - ... constant value, the experimental curve obtained for the recovery of activity will be explained if two processes are supposed to be taking place: ( 1 ) That the active constituent ThX is being produced at a constant rate; ( 2 ) That the activity of the ThX decays geometrically with time. Without at first going into the difficult questions connected with the initial irregularities and the residual activity, the main result that follows from the curves given can be put to experimental test very...
Page 206 - Within similar limits of uncertainty, we may obtain something like a conjectural estimate of the mutual distance of the particles of vapours, and even of the actual magnitude of the elementary atoms of liquids, as supposed to be nearly in contact with each other : for if the distance, at which the force of cohesion begins, is constant at the same temperature, and if the particles of steam are condensed when they approach within this distance, it follows that at 60° of Fahrenheit the distance of...
Page 420 - ... associated, the increase from this cause being greater than the decrease due to the decay of the activity of the ThX. It is easy to put this hypothesis to experimental test. If the ThX is removed from the thorium as soon as it is formed, over a sufficient period, the former will be prevented from exciting activity on the latter, and that already excited will decay spontaneously. The experiment was therefore performed. A quantity of nitrate was precipitated as hydroxide in the usual way to remove...
Page 420 - The decay-curves of several of the fractions of ThX separated in this experiment after varying intervals of time were taken for the first few days. All of them showed the initial rise of about 15 per cent, at the end of 18 hours and then a normal decay to zero. The position...
Page 420 - ... preparation. None whatever was observed, whereas if the rate of production of ThX in thorium nitrate is different from that in the oxide, the equilibrium point, at which the decay and increase of activity balance each other, will be altered in consequence. There should have therefore occurred a logarithmic rise or fall from the old to the new value. As, however, the radioactivit}' remained constant, it appears very probable that the changes involved are independent of the molecular condition.
Page 164 - ... parallel plane nets in a Bravais homogeneous assemblage of single atoms, the work of §§ 27, 28 remains valid ; and thus we arrive at the very important and interesting conclusion that when there is repulsion between nearest nets, attraction between next-nearests, and no force between next-next-nearests or any farther, the disturbance from homogeneousness in the neighbourhood of the bounding plane consists in alternate diminutions and augmentations of density becoming less and less as we travel...
Page 543 - The isoseismal 5 of the first and principal shock is чету nearly a circle 29 miles in diameter, with its centre 7 miles south-south-west of Carlisle, and is excentric with regard to the isoseismal 4. The continuity of the shock over a band extending from Carlisle to Coniston implies a corresponding continuity in the focus. The investigation of the earthquakes has led to the recognition of a deep-seated fault, the average direction of which is N. 5° E. and S.
Page 398 - These results cannot be ascribed to errors of measurement, for they have been regularly observed whenever similar preparations have been tested. The activity of the residue obtained from thorium oxide by the second method of washing decayed very similarly to that of ThX, as shown by the above curve. If for present purposes the initial periods of the curve are disregarded and the later portions only considered, it will be seen at once that the time taken for the hydroxide...
Page 148 - ... in the former procedure. § 3. In the present communication we shall consider only atoms of identical quality, and only two kinds of assemblage. I. A homogeneous assemblage of N single atoms, in which the twelve nearest neighbours of each atom are equidistant from it. This, for brevity, I call an equilateral assemblage. It is fully described in " MCM,