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like and more unusual shapes, are very often taken on the mouths of our sea-rivers, and on the sea-shore; and this will be no wonder to any that have travelled Egypt; where 'tis known the famous river Nilus does not only breed fishes that yet want names, but by the overflowing of that river, and the help of the sun's heat on the fat slime which that river leaves on the banks (when it falls back into its natural channel) such strange fish and beasts are also bred, that no man can give a name to, as Grotius (in his Sophom) and others, have
But whither am I strayed in this discourse? I will end it by telling you, that at the mouth of some of these rivers of ours herrings are so plentiful, as namely, near to Yarmouth, in Norfolk, and in the west country, pilchers so very plentiful, as you will wonder to read what our learned Camden relates of them in his Britannia (pp. 178, 186).
Well, scholar, I will stop here, and tell you what by reading and conference I have observed concerning fish-ponds.
Of Fish-ponds, and how to order them.
Hola ISC. Doctor Lebault, the learned Frenchman, in his large discourse of Maison Rustique, gives this direction for making of fish-ponds; I shall refer you to him to read at large, but I think I shall contract it, and yet make it as useful.
He adviseth, that when you have drained the ground, and made the earth firm where the head of the pond must be, that you must then, in that place, drive in two or three rows of oak or elm piles, which should be scorched in the fire, or half-burnt, before they be driven into the earth (for being thus used, it preserves them much longer from rotting); and having done so, lay faggots or bavins of smaller wood betwixt them, and then earth betwixt and above them, and then having first very well rammed them and the earth, use another pile in like manner as the first were: and note, that the second pile is to be of or about the height that you intend to make your sluice or flood-gate, or the vent that you intend shall convey
the overflowings of your pond in any flood that shall endanger the breaking of the pond-dam.
Then he advises, that you plant willows or owlers about it, or both, and then cast in bavins in some places, not far from the side, and in the most sandy places, for fish both to spawn upon, and to defend them and the young fry from the many fish, and also from vermin that lie at watch to destroy them, especially the spawn of the carp and tench, when 'tis left to the mercy of ducks or vermin.
He and Dubravius, and all others advise, that you make choice of such a place for your pond, that it may be refreshed with a little rill, or with rain-water, running or falling into it; by which, fish are more inclined both to breed, and are also refreshed and fed the better, and do prove to be of a much sweeter and more pleasant taste.
To which end it is observed, that such pools as be large, and have most gravel and shallows where fish may sport themselves, do afford fish of the purest taste. And note, that in all pools, it is best for fish to have some retiring place; as namely, hollow banks, or shelves, or roots of trees, to keep them from danger; and when they think fit, from the extreme heat of the summer; as also, from the extremity of cold in winter. And note, that if many trees be growing about your pond, the leaves thereof, falling into the water, make it nauseous to the fish, and the fish to be so to the eater of it.
'Tis noted that the tench and eel love mud, and the carp loves gravelly ground, and in the hot months to feed on grass. You are to cleanse your pond, if you intend either profit or pleasure, once every three or four years (especially some ponds), and then let it lie dry six or twelve months, both to kill the water-weeds, as water-lilies, candocks, reate, and bulrushes, that breed there; and also that as these die for want of water, so grass may grow in the pond's bottom, which carps will eat greedily in all the hot months, if the pond be clean. The letting your pond dry, and sowing oats in the bottom, is also good, for the fish feed the faster and being sometimes let dry, you may observe what kind of fish either increases or thrives best in that water; for they differ much, both in their breeding and feeding.
Lebault also advises, that if your ponds be not very large and roomy, that you often feed your fish by throwing into them chippings
of bread, curds, grains, or the entrails of chickens or of any fowl or beast that you kill to feed yourselves; for these afford fish a great relief. He says that frogs and ducks do much harm, and devour both the spawn and the young fry of all fish, especially of the carp; and I have, besides experience, many testimonies of it. But Lebault allows water-frogs to be good meat, especially in some months, if they be fat but you are to note that he is a Frenchman; and we English will hardly believe him, though we know frogs are usually eaten in his country: however, he advises to destroy them and kingfishers out of your ponds; and he advises not to suffer much shooting at wild fowl; for that (he says) affrightens, and harms, and destroys the fish.
Note, that carps and tench thrive and breed best when no other fish is put with them into the same pond; for all other fish devour their spawn, or at least the greatest part of it. And note, that clods of grass thrown into any pond, feed any carps in summer; and that garden-earth and parsley thrown into a pond recovers and refreshes the sick fish. And note, that when you store your pond, you are to put into it two or three melters for one spawner, if you put them into a breeding-pond; but if into a nurse-pond, or feeding pond, in which they will not breed, then no care is to be taken, whether there be most male or female carps.
It is observed that the best ponds to breed carps are those that be stony or sandy, and are warm and free from wind, and that are not deep, but have willow trees and grass on their sides, over which the water sometimes flows: and note, that carps do more usually breed in marle-pits, or pits that have clean clay-bottoms, or in new ponds, or ponds that lie dry a winter season, than in old ponds that be full of mud and weeds.
Well, scholar, I have told you the substance of all that either observation, or discourse, or a diligent survey of Dubravius and Lebault hath told me: not that they in their long discourses have not said more; but the most of the rest are so common observations, as if a man should tell a good arithmetician that twice two is four. I will therefore put an end to this discourse, and we will here sit down and rest us.
Directions for making of a line, and for the colouring of
ISC. Well, scholar, I have held you too long about these cadis, and smaller fish, and rivers, and fishponds; and my spirits are almost spent, and so I doubt is your patience; but being, we are now almost at Tottenham, where I first met you, and where we are to part, I will lose no time, but give you a little direction how to make and order your lines, and to colour the hair of which you make your lines, for that is very needful to be known of an angler; and also how to paint your rod, especially your top; for a right grown top is a choice commodity, and should be preserved from the water soaking into it, which makes it in wet weather to be heavy, and fish illfavouredly, and not true; and also it rots quickly for want of painting and I think a good top is worth preserving, or I had not taken care to keep a top above twenty years. But first for your line. First, note, that you are to take care that your hair be round and