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5. Next, a little dun, the dubbing of a bear's dun whirled upon yellow silk; the wings, of the grey feather of a mallard.
6. Then a white gnat, with a pale wing, and a black head.
7. There is also in this month, a fly called the peacock fly; the body made of a whirl of a peacock's feather, with a red head; and wings of a mallard's feather.
8. We have then another very killing fly, known by the name of the dun-cut; the dubbing of which is a bear's dun, with a little blue and yellow mixed with it; a large dun wing, and two horns at the head, made of the hairs of a squirrel's tail.
9. The next, is a cow-lady, a little fly; the body of a peacock's feather; the wing, of a red feather, or strips of the red hackle of a
10. We have then, the cow-turd-fly; the dubbing, light brown and yellow mixed; the wing, the dark grey feather of a mallard.
And note, that besides these above-mentioned, all the same hackles and flies, the hackles only brighter, and the flies smaller, that are taken in April, will also be taken this month, as also all browns and duns and now I come to my stone-fly and green-drake, which are the matadores for trout and grayling, and in their season kill more fish in our Derbyshire rivers than all the rest, past and to come, in the whole year besides.
But first I am to tell you, that we have four several flies which contend for the title of the May-fly; namely,
The Black-fly, and
The little yellow May-fly.
And all these have their champions and advocates to dispute and plead their priority; though I do not understand why the two last named should; the first two having so manifestly the advantage, both in their beauty, and the wonderful execution they do in their season.
11. Of these the green-drake comes in about the twentieth of this month, or betwixt that and the latter end (for they are sometimes sooner, and sometimes later, according to the quality of the year); but never well taken till towards the end of this month, and the beginning of June. The stone-fly comes much sooner, so early as the middle of April; but is never well taken till towards the middle of May, and continues to kill much longer than the green-drake stays with us, so long as to the end almost of June; and indeed, so long as there are any of them to be seen upon the water; and sometimes in an artificial fly, and late at night, or before sunrise in the morning, longer.
Now both these flies (and I believe many others, though I think not all) are certainly, and demonstratively bred in the very rivers where they are taken : our cadis or cod-bait which lie under stones in the bottom of the water, most of them turning into those two flies, and being gathered in the husk, or crust, near the time of their maturity, are very easily known and distinguished, and are, of all other, the most remarkable, both for their size, as being of all other the biggest (the shortest of them being a full inch long or more), and for the execution they do, the trout and grayling being much more greedy of them than of any others; and indeed the trout never feeds fat, nor comes into his perfect season, till these flies come in.
Of these the green-drake never discloses from his husk, till he be first there grown to full maturity, body, wings, and all; and then he creeps out of his cell, but with his wings so crimpt and ruffled, by being prest together in that narrow room, that they are, for some hours, totally useless to him; by which means he is compelled either to creep upon the flags, sedges, and blades of grass (if his first rising from the bottom of the water be near the banks of the river) till the air and sun stiffen and smooth them; or, if his first appearance above
water happened to be in the middle, he then lies upon the surface of the water like a ship at hull (for his feet are totally useless to him there, and he cannot creep upon the water as the stone-fly can) until his wings have got stiffness to fly with, if by some trout or grayling he be not taken in the interim (which ten to one he is), and then his wings stand high, and closed exact upon his back, like the butterfly, and his motion in flying is the same. His body is, in some, of a paler, in others, of a darker yellow (for they are not all exactly of a colour), ribbed with rows of green, long, slender, and growing sharp towards the tail, at the end of which he has three long small whisks of a very dark colour, almost black, and his tail turns up towards his back like a mallard; from whence, questionless he has his name of the green-drake. These (as I think I told you before) we commonly dape, or dibble with, and having gathered great store of them into a long draw-box, with holes in the cover to give them air (where also they will continue fresh and vigorous a night or more), we take them