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collects in the side drains through the cutting to run off to the side drains before it reaches the embankment. For want of this precaution, embankments frequently suffer very much.
Depôts should be made on the sides of all roads for holding materials.
The best form is that which will serve to measure the quantity of materials, as well as to hold them. The back walls should be twelve yards long,
and the two side walls each two yards and a half at the bottom, and to slope at an angle of 45° to the to: the height of the back and sides should be three feet. A depôt of this form and dimensions will hold twenty-four cubic yards of materials; and four of these depôts on a mile, at 428 yards apart, will contain 100 cubic yards.
The depôts should not in any case be placed farther from each other than a quarter of a mile, so as to admit of moving the materials in barrows. This method is better calculated for constant repairs, than that of drawing them with carts and horses.
Specification for building Depóts of Stone
Masonry. “ Four depôts are to be built, on each mile of road, in such places as may be pointed out by the engineer or his assistant: they are to be built with stone and lime; twelve yards long in the clear,
three feet high above the side channels of the road, and to be founded as low as necessary below that, to give stability to the work; the ends to be two yards and a half in the clear at the bottom, and to rise to one yard and a half at top; the thickness of the work to be eighteen inches throughout for the height of three feet; the work under that to be two feet thick. The top of the back, sides, and slopes to be coped with large stones, set on edge, and laid in good mortar.
“ The bottom is to be flagged with sandstone, in the rough, neatly jointed and evenly bedded.
“ The back and ends of the depôts to have a mound of earth thrown up against them, eighteen inches high on the outside, and eighteen inches or two feet on the base, rounded off on the top, and faced with sod if necessary, and the regular quantity of quicksets planted in it, which are to be protected by the field row of posts and rails before described : a tile drain to be laid in front of the depôt; it is to be thirteen yards long and ten inches in the square.” (See Plate IV. fig. 7.)
Specification for building Depôts with Bricks.
“ Four depôts for holding repairing materials are to be erected, in each mile of road, in such places as may be pointed out by the inspector: they are to be built of brick, twelve yards long in the clear, three feet high above the side channels of the road; the foundations to be deep enough to give stability to the work; the ends to be two yards and a half clear at the bottom, and to rise one yard and a half at top; the thickness of the back and ends to be nine inches. The upper course of bricks are to be laid on edge in cement; the ends are to be secured by an oak post driven three feet in the ground, and rising one foot above the surface; the bottom is to be paved with brick on edge, and an oak plank is to be set in front the whole length of the depôt, and flush with the upper surface of the pavement; it is to be three inches thick and six inches deep, secured at the ends by the oak posts before mentioned, and strengthened in the middle by a post driven two feet into the ground, and of a scantling not less than four inches by six inches.
“ The back and ends of the depôts are to have a mound of earth raised behind them eighteen inches deep and two feet wide, and faced with green sod; in this mound the quicks are to be set, which are to be protected with one row of posts and rails, as above described, set on the field side. A drain is to be made in front, of brick or tiles, so as not to interrupt the passage of the water in the inner side drain.”
Toll-houses should be built in a strong and substantial manner, and made suitable and comfortable for the persons who are to inhabit them. Many instances might be mentioned in which the tolls on a road have been much increased by building good houses. The following are the specifications for building toll-houses on the Holyhead Road.
“ The rooms numbered 1. and 2. on the plan are to be floored with paving tile, well bedded in mortar. Those numbered 3. and 4. are to have joists of batten fir, sixteen inches from centre' to centre, seven inches deep, and two inches and a half thick, and to be covered with wrought-inch board of fir or poplar. All the ceilings to have joists not less than three inches by two inches, and the roof to have rafters of the same dimensions, with purloins four inches square under the whole of them. The ceiling, joists, and rafters to be sixteen inches from centre to centre. Hips and ridges to be one inch and a half by eight inches, and raised to receive the lead. The wall plates to be four inches and a half by two inches and a half.
“ The roof to be covered with good slate, nailed on two-inch sawn lath, and to be rough-rendered inside. All the hips and ridges to be covered with lead, fifteen inches wide, and not less than five pounds to the foot, and valleys not less than six pounds to the foot.
“ All ceilings to be plastered on heart lath, two coats, floated and set.
“ Walls to have two coats, rendered and set. The under side of the portico and projection of the roof to be also ceiled and plastered, and faced with a three inch and a half fascia board.
“ All ceilings and plastered walls to be whitewashed, to have six-inch skirting round all the rooms, of fir, one inch thick.
“ Outer door frames to be of oak, four inches square. The front door to be two inches thick,
at least twelve inches wide. The octagonal lower room and the wash-house to be paved with tiles.
“ All woodwork to be painted three times in oil ; the inside works finished white, with doors and skirting oak colour, and the outside work dark green.
“ There are to be proper grates, with slate chimney-pieces, to all the rooms.
“ A garden is to be fenced round on three sides, each of twenty yards, with a walk of the same description as those on each side of the new road.
“ In this garden a privy is to be built, with proper roof, dome, seat, &c. complete. There are to be two wrought-iron toll-gates hung, one across the road to Plas-newydd, and the other across that to Holyhead. There are also to be two turnstiles; the posts and rails to be of sound oak; to be painted three times in oil, white. The contractor to find all the materials and the labour."
Specification for building a Toll-house at Shelton,
in the Parish of St. Chad, in the County of Salop.
The toll-house to be built on the spot marked out by the engineer, and agreeably to the drawings.
“ The whole of the walls, except the plinth, steps, and window sills, are to be of good sound brick-work, to be laid solid in good mortar, composed of lime and sand; and the outer joints to be neatly struck with the trowel. The plinth, steps, and window sills to be of neatly tooled freestone.