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nothing to do in this matter ; for if it be undeniably certain, that every man is obliged to promote the glory of God, it will follow, that the magistrate is not exempted ; but moves in a station of greater influence, and has therefore ability to perform this in a more effectual manner, which is a duty universally incumbent upon

If these writers would gain their point; they must prove, that the being a magi. strate cancels that duty, which the magistrate, as a man, owes to God, which is a part of his reasonable service to the Deity, and which he is indispensably obliged to perform in the best manner he can ; only taking due care, that a zeal for his duty does not lead bim into unjust or wicked measures about it. But it is the interest of the magistrate to establish religion ; for it is the surest way to obtain the protection of God's Providence;? without which no wise and prudent writer ever reputed the public affairs of kingdoms to be in a safe and flourishing condition. And it is the only, or by far the best way to cultivate those moral principles of duty amongst a people, without which

all men.


2 1 Sam. ii. 30. Ταυτα τε δη το ανδρος αγαμαι, και ετι προς τετοις α μελλω λεγειν, ότι το καλως οικεισθαι τας πόλεις αιτιας υσολαβων, ας θρυλλεσι μεν απανlες οι πολιτικοι, κατασκευαζεσι δ' ολιγοι: πρωτην μεν τσαρα των θεων ευνοιαν, ης σαρεσης απανία τοις AvIqwwors E71 ta xpertlw Our Pepetat. Dionys. Halicarn. Antiquit. Rom. 1. 2. c. 18.—Diis Deabusque immortalibus, quorum ope et auxilio, multo magis hæc respublica, quam ratione hominum et consilio, gubernatur. Cicero Orat. pro C. Rabirio. Etenim quis est tam vecors, quiDeos esse intellexerit, non intelligat eorum numine hoc tantum imperium esse natum et auctum, et retentum ? Quàm


no community can be cither happy or secure. Thus Tully thought upon this subject, concluding the happiness of a community to be founded upon religion, and very judiciously querying whetlier, pietate adversus deos sublata, if a general neglect of religion were introduced, a looseness of principle, destructive of all society, would not quickly follow ; an evil, which if the magistrate does not prevent, he can do nothing very effectual to the public welfare.' Of this all the heathen magistrates have ever been apprized ; and therefore never were so wild as to attempt to discharge themselves from the care of it. Their only fault was, that their care of it was too political. When they themselves were the ministers of religion, they set up their fancies instead of religion, as their speculations led them, or their interests directed; and afterwards, when they appointed other persons to the ministrations, they so managed as to have them at their direcó tion for the same purposes; as will appear to any one, who will fairly examine this sulyject.

There should be something said, before I close this book, about the right which female heirs may be supposed to be thought by these ancients to have, to crowns

volumus licet, P. C. ipsi nos amemus, tamen nec numero Hispanos, nec robore Gallos, nec calliditate Pænos, nec artibus Græcos, nec denique hoc ipso hujus gentis ac terræ domestico nativoque sensu Italos ipsos ac Latinos, sed pic. tate ac religione, atque hac una sapientia, quod deorum , immortalium numine omnia regi gubernarique perspeximus, omnes gentes nationesque superarimus. Cicero Orat. de Haruspicum Responsis.

Cic. de Nat. Deorum, lib. 1. c. 2. et in al. loc. innum. VOL. II.

and kingdoms. Semiramis was the first queen we read of in any nation, and Justin supposes that she obtained the crown by deceit upon her people, by her being mistaken for her son Ninyas ;' but Diodorus gives a much better and more probable account of her advancement; who says, that Ninus appointed her to be queen at his death. It is indeed true, that the original constitution of some kingdoms, if they were founded upon the maxims, which I have supposed, do not seem to admit of any female governors. Thus in Egypt they did not think of having queens, at the forming their first settlement ; for which reason, in order to make a way for them, there was a law made when Binothris was king of This,' i. e. about A. M. 2232, that they should not be excluded. In nations, where civil government began from despotic authority; queens may be supposed to have succeeded naturally upon defect of male heirs ; but they have been commonly excluded in elective kingdoms. Two things are remarkable: 1. That in ancient times, whenever qucens reigned, they presided in religion, and were priestesses to their people, as kings were priests; and thus Dido in Virgil, made the libation at the entertain. ment of Æneas and his companions, as the kings of Greece in Homer did upon like occasions. 2. Divine

Providence has generally distinguished the reigns of 1 queens, with uncommon glory to themselves, and

bappiness to their people, of which both our own, and the history of other nations afford almost as many instances, as there have been queens upon their thrones.

Justin. lib. 1. c. 2. • Syncellus, p. 54.

c Diodor. Sic. lib. 2.
e Æneid. l. ver. 740.





• ISAAC, after Abraham was buried, continued to live where his father left him. Rebekah for some years had no children; but about twenty years after her marriage with Isaac, A. M. 2168, she had two. sons, Esau and Jacob. The two children grew up to be men: were of a very different genius and temper; Jacob was very studious and much versed in relia gious contemplations; Esau had but little thought or eare about them. Jacob, upon seeing Esau, in some absence of his father, officiate at the sacrifice, was very desirous to obtain this employment himself, which he thought so honourable.. Esau on the other hand had no value at all for it; so they bargained together, and for a small refreshment Esau sold Jacob

• Gen, xxv. 24. Isaac was forty years old when he married, and he was sixty when Jacob and Esau were born. ref. 26.

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all his right and title to it. Esau is for this action called the profane Esau ;' becaụse he despised his birth-right, by parting with it for a trifling consideration. Some writers suppose, that the birth-right which Esau here sold, was his right to be the heir of his father's substance. If this were true, and he had only sold that, he might indeed be called a foolish and inconsiderate person to make so unwise a bargain; but why profane? It is evident, that this could not be the fact; for when Isaac died, and Esau came from mount Seir, where he lived, to join with Jacob in assisting at his father's funeral; at his going away from his brother, he carried with himn not only his wives, his sons, his daughters, his cattle, and all his beasts; but besides these, all his substance which he had got in the land of Canaan. Esau had no substance in the land of Canaan of his own getting; for he lived at Seir in the land of Edom, beyond the borders of Canaan; the substance therefore which was gotten in the land of Canaan, must be the substance of which Isaac died possessed, and which as heir Esau took along with him. Therefore after his birth-right was sold, he was still beir to his father's substance, and as heir had it delivered to him, so that his right to this was not what Jacob had bought of him. Others think, that the birth-right was the blessing promised to the seed of Abraham ; and the words of the writer of the Epistle to the llebrews seem very much, to favour this opinion. Lest there be any fornicator or profane

the la

in the

b Gen. xxv, 33. . Gen. xxii. 3.

e Gen. xxvi. 6.

c Heb. xii. 16.

Heb. xii. 16, 17.

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