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cred text does in the least hint, that they borrowed, or attempted to borrow any thing of them. The Hebrew word which our translators have rendered borrow is shaal,d which does not signify to borrow, but to ask one to give. It is the very word used Psalm ü. 8. Sheal-te ettenah, ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. The fact was, God had told Moses, that the Israelites should not go out of Egypt empty; but that every woman should ask her neighbour, and the person she lived with, to give her jewels and raiment, and that he would dispose the Egyptians to give them. Thus when they were leaving Egypt, the children of Israel asked the Egyptians for jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment; and the LORD gave the people farour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they gave them what they asked for, so freely as to impoverish themselves by making presents to them. Josephus represents this fact agreeably to the true sense of the sacred text. He says that the Egyptians, δωροις τε τες Εβραιος ετιμων: οι μεν υπερ τα ταχιον εξελθειν' οι δε και κατα γειτνιακης apos aUTUS Our Delav made the Hebrews considerable presents; and that some did so, in order to induce them to go the sooner away from them; others out of respect to, and upon account of the acquaintance they had had with them.
• Ibid. iii.
& See Exod. j. 22. & xii. 35. Joseph. Antiq. Jud. lib. 2. c. 14.
The exit of the children of Israel out of Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years after Abraham's first coming into Canaan. Now Abraham came into Canaan A. M. 2083,5 so that counting four hundred and thirty years forward from that year, we shall fix the exit A. M. 2513, in which year it was accomplished. Our English translators have rendered the xiith chapter of Exodus, verse 40, very justly; now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. The interlinear translation of the Hebrew Bible, and the vulgar Latin version, both misrepresent the true sense of the place, by rendering it to this effect; now the inhabiting of the children of Israel, whereby they inhabited in Egypt, were four hundred and thirty years. The children of Israel did not live in Egypt four hundred and thirty years; for they came into Egypt with Jacob A. M. 2298," and they went out of Egypt A. M. 2513, so that they lived in Egypt but two hundred and fifteen years; therefore the sojourn. ing of the children of Israel must not be limited to their living in Egypt only, but taken in a more general sense, and extended to the time of their living in Canaan; for the four hundred and thirty years, hero mentioned, begin from Abraham's first coming into Canaan. The Sa maritan text has the verse thus, now the inhabiting of the children of Israel, and their fathers, whereby they inhabited in the land of Canaan, and in the land of Egypt, were four hun
& See vol. i, B. v, p. 248.
See vol. ii, B. vii.
dred and thirty years.
The most learned Dean Prideaux observes, that the additions herein do manifestly mend the text, and make it more clear and intelligible, and add nothing to the Hebrew copy, but what must be understood by the reader to make out the sense thereof;'i and therefore, why may we not suppose that the ancient Hebrew text was in this verse the same with the present Samaritan, and that the words which the Samaritan text now has in this place more than the llebrew, have been dropped by some transcribers! Josephus fixes the time of the Israelites' departure out of Egypt very exactly. He says, it was four hundred and thirty years after Abraham's coming into Canaan; and two hundred and fifteen years after Jacob's coming into Egypt,“ both which accounts suppose it A. M. 2513, the year above-mentioned. If the pastors came into Egypt A. M. 2420, as I have supposed, then the exit of the Israelites will be ninety-three years after the beginning of the reign of Salatis, who was the first of the pastorkings; and according to Sir John Marsham's table of these kings, Apachnas was king of Egypt at this time.
From the time when the children of Israel were arrived at Succoth, to their getting over the Red Sea into Midian, it does not appear that Moses led them one step by his own conduct or contrivance. They removed from Succoth to Etham, a town near the
i Prideaux Connect. vol. 2. part 1, book 6. p. 602.
border of the wilderness of Arabia ; from thence they moved back into the mountainous parts of Egypt, on the west side of the Red Sea, and encamped near to Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the Sea. According to Moses' narration of their movements, it was in no wise left to his conduct where to lead the people. When Pharaoh had let the people go, God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near, lest they should repent when they saw war, and return to Egypt; but God led them about through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea, and the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud to lead them the
and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, to go by day and night. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol, and the sea, over-against Baal-zephon, before it shall ye encamp by the sea.' Our very learned countryman, Sir Walter Raleigh, represents the conduct of Moses in this march of the Israelites, as in some measure the effects of his own prudence and skill in the art of war; and gives some reasons to shew how Moses performed in the several stations of this march, the part of a very able commander. I cannot pretend to judge of the reasons of war suggested by him ; but I imagine, that Sir Walter Raleigh's great military skill, might lead him to draw an ingenious scheme here for Moses, where we
'Exod. xiii. 17-22. xiv. 1, 2.
have no reason to think that Moses laid any scheme at all. It is indeed probable, that reason might suggest to Moses, that it could be in no wise proper to lead his people directly through Philistia to Canaan. His people, though very numerous, were a mixed multitude, not used to, and altogether undisciplined for war; and the Philistines were a strong and valiant people, and could not well be thought willing to suffer six hundred thousand persons to enter their country. Discretion and prudence therefore might suggest to him, that it would be more proper to lead them about by the Wilderness of Arabia, and to retire with them to Midian, where he was sure he should be well received by Jethro the ruler there; and there to form them, for what undertakings it might please God to design them. All this may be consistent with the Hebrew expression of God's lead. ing them; who is often said to do several things, by permitting them to be done by the conduct of the persons employed to do them. But though all this might reasonably be supposed; yet, as I said, the journeying of the Israelites from Succoth to the Red Sea, was evidently conducted by God's immediate direction. 1. For if Moses designed to carry the people to Jethro's country, he had a much nearer way from Etham, through the Wilderness of Sinai, than to lead the people into the mountainous and rocky country, on the Egyptian borders of the Red Sea, out of which he could not expect to find any passage into Midian, without coming back to Etham again. 2. As far as I am able to judge, this had been a