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into Mesopotamia, into Canaan, Philistia, and Egypt; the profane writers speaking of him under the name of Chronus say he travelled over the whole world. Thus the Egyptians might record of Sesostris, that he conquered the whole world; and the historians who took the hints of what they wrote from them, might, to embellish their history, give us what they thought the most considerable parts of the world, and thereby magnify the conquests of Sesostris far above the truth. But Herodotus seems in this point to have been more careful; for he examined particulars, and according to the utmost of what he could find, none of the victories of this Egyptian conqueror reached to any of the nations subject to the Assyrians. Sir Isaac Newton mentions Memnon as another 'Egyptian conqueror, who possessed Chaldea, Assyria, Media, Persia and Bactria, &c. so that it may be thought that some successor of Sesostris (for before him the Egyptians had no conquerors) subdued and reigned over these countries. I shall
See Eusel). Prep. Evang. l. 1. c. 10.
therefore, 3, give a short abstract of the Egyptian affairs from Sesac, until Nebu. chadnessar took entirely away from them all their acquisitions in Asia. At the death of Sesąc the Egyptian power sunk at once, and they lost all the foreign nations which Sesac had conquered. Herodotus informs us, that Sesostris was the only king of Egypt who reigned over the Ethiopians;' and agreeably hereto we find that when Asą was king of Judah, about A.M. 3063,* about thirty years after Sesostris or Sesac's conquests, the Ethiopians' were not only free from their subjection to the Egyptians, but were grown up into a state of great power; for Zerah their king invaded Judea with a host of a thousand thousand and three hundred chariots, Our great author says, that Ethiopia served Egypt until the death of Sesostris and no longer; that at the death of Sesostris Egypt fell into civil wars, and
k Usher's Chronol. · The Hebrew word is the Cushites, it should have been translated the Arabiane. See vol. i. b. 3. p. 143,
i Herodot. lib. 2. c. 110.
2 Chron. xiv.
was invaded by the Libyans, and defended by the Ethiopians for some time; but that in about ten years the Ethiopians invaded the Egyptians, slew their king and seized his kingdom." It is certain, that the Egyptian empire was at this time demolished : the Ethiopians were free from it, and if we look into Palestine we shall not find reason to suppose that the Egyptians had the service of any nation there, from this time for many years.
Neither Asa king of Judah nor Baasha king of Israel had any dependance upon Egypt, when they warred against each other; and Syria was in a flourishing and independent state, when Asa sought an alliance with Benhadad. About A. M. 3116, about eighty-three years after Sesac, we find Egypt still in a low state, the Philistines were independent of them; for they joined with the Arabians and distressed Jehoram. About one hundred and seventeen years after Sesac, when the Syrians besieged Samaria, it may be thought that the Egyptians were growing
» Newton's Chron. p. 236. 1 Kings XV.
P 2 Chron xxi, 16, 9 2 Kings vi. 24.
powerful again; for the Syrians raised their siege, upon a rumour that the king of Israel had hired the kings of the Hittites and of the Egyptians to come upon them. The Egyptians were perhaps by this time getting out of their difficulties; but they were not yet grown very formidable, for the Syrians were not terrified at the apprehension of the Egyptian power, but of the kings of the Hittites and the Egyptians joined together. From this time the Egyptians began to rise again; and when Sennacherib sent Rabshekah against Jerusalem' about A. M. 3292, the king of Israel thought an alliance with Egypt might have been sufficient to protect him against the Assyrian invasions;' but the king of Assyria made war upon the Egyptians, and rendered then a bruised reed, not able to assist their allies, and greatly brake and reduced their power;* so that whatever the empire of Egypt was in those days, there was an Assyrian empire
now standing able to check it. In the days of Josiah, about A. M. 3394, the Egyptian empiré was revived again. Necho king of Egypt went and fought against Carchemish by Euphrates, and in his return to Egypt put down Jehoahaz, who was made king in Jerusalem upon Josiah's death, and condemned the land of the Jews to
him a tribute, and carried Jehoahaz captive into Egypt, and made Eliakim, whom he named Jehoiakim, king over Judah and Jerusalem.” But here we meet å final period put to all the Egyptian victories; for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against Jehoiakim, and bound him in fetters, and carried him to Babylon, and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem;' and the king of Babylon took from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt, and the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his own land. Whatever the empire of
19 2 Kings xxiii, 29. 2 Chron. xxxv. 20.
2 Kings xxiv. 7.