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martial shall think fit. Any person concealing any traitorous or mutinous words, or any words, practice, or design, tending to the hinderance of the service, and not forth with revealing the same to the commanding officer, or being present at any mutiny or sedition, shall not use his utmost endeavours to suppress the same, shall be punished as a court martial thinks he deserves. 21. Any person finding cause of complaint of the unwbolesomeness of victuals, or upon other just ground, shall quietly make the same known to his superior, who as far as he is able, shall cause the same to be presently remedied; and no person upon any such or other pretence shall attempt to stir up any disturbance, upon pain of such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to inflict. 22. Any person striking any his superior officer, or drawing or offering to draw or lift up any weapon against him, being in the execution of his office, shall suffer death. And any person presuming to quarrel with any his superior officer, being in the execution of his office, or disobeying any lawful command of any his superior oflicer, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon him by a court martial. 23. Any person quarrelling or fighting with any other person in the fleet, or using reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures, shall sutfer such punishment as a court martial shall impose. 24. There shall be no wasteful expense, or embezzlement of any powder, shot, &c., upon penalty of such punishment as by a court martial shall be found just. 25. Every person burning or setting fire to any magazine or store of powder, ship, &c., or furniture thereunto belonging, not then appertaining to an enemy, shall suffer death. 26. Care is to be taken, that through wilfulness or negligence no ship be stranded, run upon rocks or sands, or split or hazarded, upon pain of death, or such punishment as a court martial shall deem the offence to deserve. 27. No person shall sleep upon his watch, or negligently perform his duty, or forsake his station, upon pain of death, or such punishment, &c. 28. Murder; 29. Buggery or sodomy; 30. And robbery, shall be punished with death, or otherwise, &c. 31. Every person knowingly making or signing, or commanding, counselling, or procuring the making or signing any false muster, shall be cashiered, and rendered incapable of farther employment. 32. Provost marshal refusing to apprehend or receive any criminal, or suffering him to escape, shall suffer such punishment as a court martial shall deem him to deserve. And all others shall do their endeavours to detect and apprehend all offenders, upon pain of being punished by a court martial. 33. If any flag officer, captain, commander, or lieutenant, shall behave in a scandalous, infamous, cruel, oppressive, or fraudulent manner, unbecoming his character, he shall be dismissed. 34. Every person in actual service and full pay, guilty of mutiny, desertion, or disobedience, in any part of his majesty's service on shore when on actual service, relative to the fleet, shall be liable to be tried by a court martial, and suffer the like punishment as if the offence had been committed at sea. 35. Every person in active service and full pay, committing upon shore, in any place out of his majesty's dominions, any crime punishable by these articles, shall be liable to be tried and punished, as if the crime had been committed at sea. 36. All other crimes not capital, not mentioned in this act, shall be punished according to the laws and customs used at sea. No person to be imprisoned longer than two years. Court martial not to try any offence (except the 5th, 34th, and 35th articles) not committed upon the main sea, or in any great rivers beneath the bridges, or in any haven, &c., within the jurisdiction of the admiralty, or by persons in actual service and full pay, except such persons and offences, as in the 5th article, nor to try a land officer or soldier on board a transport ship. The lord high admiral, &c. may grant commissions to any officer commanding in chief in any fleet, &c., to call courts martial, consisting of commanders and captains. And if the commander-in-chief shall die or be removed, the officer next in command may call courts martial. No commander-in-chief of a fleet, &c., of more than five ships, shall preside at any court martial in foreign parts, but the officer next in command shall preside. If a commander-in-chief shall detach any part of his fleet, &c., he may empower the chief commander of the detachment to hold courts martial during the separate service. If five or more ships shall meet in foreign parts, the senior officer may hold courts martial and preside thereat. When it is improper for the officer next to the commander-in-chief to hold or preside at a court martial, the third officer in command may be empowered to preside, &c. No court martial shall consist of more than thirteen, or less than five persons. When there shall not be less than three, and yet not so many as five, of the degree of a post captain or superior rank, the officer who is to preside may call to his assistance as many commanders under the degree of a post captain, as, together with the post captains shall make up the number five, to hold the court martial After trial begun, no member of a court martial shall go on shore, until sentence, except in case of sickness, upon pain of being cashiered. Proceedings shall not be delayed, if a sufficient number remain to compose the court, which shall sit from day to day (except Sundays) till sentence be given. The judge, advocate, and all officers constituting a court martial, shall be upon oath. Persons refusing to give evidence shall be imprisoned. Sentence of death within the narrow seas (except in case of mutiny) shall not be put in execution till a report be made to the lord high admiral, &c. Sentence of death beyond the narrow seas shall not be put in execution but by order of the commander-in-chief of the fleet, &c. Sentence of death in any squadron detached from the fleet, shall not be put in execution (except in case of mutiny) but by order of the commander of the fleet, or lord high admiral, &c. And sentence of death passed in a court martial held by the senior officers of five or more ships met in foreign parts (except in case of mutiny) shall not be put in execution but by order of the lord higla admiral, &c.
The royal navy of Great Britain is now in a very flourishing condition, having been diligently maintained in preceding reigns as the natural strength of the kingdom. Anciently there were three or four admirals appointed for the British seas, all of whom held their office during the king's pleasure, and each of them having particular limits under his government; as the admirals of the fleet commanded all the ships from the mouth of the Thames northward, southward, and westward. Besides these, there were admirals of the Cinque Ports : sometimes one admiral has commanded to the north, south, and west, at once; but the title of admiral of England was not customary till the reign of Henry IV., when the king's brother had that title bestowed on him. In former times, before the word admiral was introduced, the supreme naval officer was called custos maris, or the king's lieutenant-general of the sea.
of the rank of admiral there are three degrees : viz. admiral, viceadmiral, and rear admiral. Each of these degrees, consists of three divisions, each having a different coloured flag; hence all admirals assume the common title of flag officer, and take rank and command in the following order : admirals of the red, of the white, and of the blue squadrons, and each bears their respective flags at the main top gallant mast head; vice-admirals of each of the flags, bearing their respective flags at the fore top gallant mast head; and the rear-admirals, bearing their respective flags at the mizen top gallant mast head.
The admiral of the fleet is a mere honorary distinction, which gives no command. It is sometimes conferred, but not always, on the senior admiral on the list of paval officers. If he should happen to serve afloat, he is entitled to bear the union Alag at the main top gallant mast head, which the present king, who was at that time duke of Clarence and admiral of the fleet, did, when he escorted Louis XVIII. across the channel in 1814, to take possession of the throne of France.
The lord high admiral of England is an ancient officer of high rank in the state, in whom not only the government of the navy is vested, but who, long before any regular navy existed in England, presided over a sovereign court, with authority to hear and determine all causes relating to the sea, and to take cognizance of all offences committed thereon. The origin of this dignitary is uncertain : it is generally supposed that the title and office were first instituted by Edward I., about the year 1286, but it would seem that it was merely honorary. From the 34th year of Edward II., however, there is a regular succession of admirals held by many illustrious names in English chivalry. In 1632, the office of high admiral was for the first time put in commission, all the great officers of state being the commissioners. During the usurpation of Cromwell, a committee of parliament acted as commissioners. At the Restoration, in 1660, his royal highness James duke of York, was appointed lord high admiral of England. In 1684, however, Charles II. deprived the duke of York of this command, and managed the affairs of the admiralty by his great officers of state until his death. King James II. upon his accession declared himself lord high admiral and lord general; and he conducted the affairs of the admiralty during his whole reign with the assistance of Mr Secretary Pepys. At the Revolution, William and Mary put the adıniralty again in commission. In 1707, queen Anne appointed her own husband, prince George of Denmark, high admiral of Great Britain, in consequence of the union of the two crowns, with a council to assist him; and at his death the queen took the office into her own hands, Mr Burchett doing the duties as her deputy. Since that time, the office of lord admiral has been executed by lords commissioners of the admiralty, till May, 1827, when George IV. appointed his then royal highness the duke of Clarence lord high admiral, with a council of four officers to assist him. In which office he acted to the great satisfaction of the navy at large, until he solicited his late majesty to be permitted to resign his high office in 1828, when it was again put in commission.
The droits of admiralty consist of flotsome, jetsome, lagon, treasure, deodands, derelicts, found within the jurisdiction of the high admiral; all goods picked up at sea; all fines, forfeitures, ransoms, recognizances, and pecuniary punishments; all sturgeons, whales, porpusses, dolphins, rigs, and grampusses, and all such large fishes; all ships and goods of the enemy coming into creek, road, or port, by stress of weather, mistake, or ignorance of the war; all ships seized at sea, salvage, &c.; together with his shares of prizes, which shares were afterwards called tenths. All prizes are now wholly given up by the crown to the captors, and such share of the droits as from circumstances may be thought proper.
The lord high admiral also claimed, and enjoyed as his due, the cast ships; and the subordinate officers of the navy, as their perquisites, all other decayed and unserviceable stores.
Though by the act of William and Mary, the lords commissioners are vested with all and singular authorities, jurisdictions and powers, which have been and are vested, settled, and placed, in the lord high admiral of England for the time being, to all intents and purposes, as if the said commissioners were lord high admiral of England; yet there is this remarkable difference in the two patents by which they are constituted, that the patent of the lord high admiral mentions very little of the military part of his office, but chiefly details his judicial duties as a magistrate, whilst on the contrary the patent to the lords commissioners of the admiralty is very particular in directing them to govern the affairs of the navy, and is wholly silent as to their judicial powers.
These powers, as expressed in the patent to the earl of Pembroke in 1701, are, the power to act by deputy; to take cognizance of all causes, civil and maritime, within his jurisdiction; to arrest goods and persons; to preserve public streams, ports, rivers, fresh waters and creeks whatsoever within his jurisdiction, as well for the preservation of the ships as of the fishes; to reform too straight nets, and unlawful engines, and punish offenders; to arrest ships, mariners, pilots, masters, gunners, bombardiers, and any other persons whatsoever, able and fit for the service of the ships, as often as occasion shall require, and wheresoever they shall be met with; to appoint vice-admirals, judges, and other officers, durante bene placito; to remove, suspend, or expel them, and put others in their places, as he shall see occasion; to take cognizance of civil and maritime laws, and of death, murder, and maim.
The office of his majesty's ordnance is kept within the Tower of London. This office has always been one of the greatest importance, as being the only standing and grand national magazine for all the munitions of war, both for the military and naval service, and which superintends, orders, and disposes, the principal magazine in the Tower, as well as at Woolwich, Chatham, Portsmouth, Plymouth, Edinburgh Castle, and everywhere else. Immense quantities of gunpowder, full accoutrements for horse and foot, with ordnance, shot, and other stores in proportion, as well for the naval as the military service, are kept in this royal depot, deposited separately in their several storehouses with great order and care, for their preservation and more speedy despatch in their delivery. It is under the government in chief of the master-general of the ordnance, who is generally a person of great eminence and integrity. The other officers are a lieutenant general, a surveyor, clerk of the ordnance, keeper of the stores, clerk of the deliveries, and the treasurer and paymaster, who all hold their places by patent under the great seal.
The duties of the lieutenant-general are to receive all significations, orders, &c., from the master at the board; to see them duly executed; to make orders, as the king's service shall require, for things of such importance as do not require the king's warrant, or the warrants of the lords of the admiralty. Formerly the master-general's office was more of a sinecure, but of late years he is obliged to be constant in his attendance with the other principal officers, if any business requires their presence. The lieutenant-general of the ordnance gives orders for the firing of salutes upon birthdays and other festivals, and also superintends the artillery and all its equipages.
The surveyor's charge is to survey all his majesty's ordnance, stores and munitions of war in the storekeeper's custody, which he is to arrange in such a manner as shall be for their preservation and safety, ready view, and easy accompt; to allow all bills of debts, and to keep check upon the work of artificers and labourers; to inspect the quality and state of all provisions, that they be good and serviceable, and duly proved with the assistance of the other officers and the proof-masters, and if necessary that they be branded with the king's mark.
The clerk of the ordnance is to record all orders and instructions for the government of the office, likewise all patents and grants, and the names of all the officers, clerks, artificers, attendants, gunners, labourers, and others who enjoy the said grants, or any other fees from the king for the same; to draw all estimates for provisions, supplies, &c.; and all letters, instructions, commissions, deputations, and contracts for his majesty's service; to make all bills of impost, and debentures for the payment of the respective artificers and creditors of the office for work done or provisions received; and quarter books for the salaries, allowances, and wages of all officers, clerks, and other servants belonging to the office; and also to keep journals and ledgers of the receipts and returns of all his majesty's stores: that nothing be bought, borrowed, given, received, lent, or employed, without a regular record thereof, to serve as a check between the two accountants of the office, the one for money, the other for stores.
Under the charge and custody of the storekeeper are placed all the king's ordnance, munitions, and stores belonging to the office. It is his duty to give legal security for their safe-keeping; to make just and true returns from time to time; to reject all provisions whatsoever that are manifestly unserviceable, or before they have been inspected by the surveyor; not to issue any proportion of ordnance, munition, and stores, except the same be agreed upon, and signed by the proper officers, according to the master-general of the ordnance's signification and appointment, warranted by his majesty's sign manual, or six members of the privy