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of the several hours of day and night, which are in the Breviary ; either publicly in a church or chapel, or privately by themselves. The canon law is positive as to this, with relation to priests. Decret. dis. 91. And it is the common opinion of the divines and canonists, that deacons and sub-deacons were obliged to the
Wherefore, since our Reformers thought it convenient that the mumbling over the prayers in private should be laid aside by the clergy, they would not perfectly exonerate them from the constant repetition of the public devotions; and therefore they changed the private recital of the Morning and Evening service, which was before performed by each clergyman' alone by himself, into family prayer, when a congregation could not be gotten at Church.”—Dr. Nicholls in locum.
18. “The two times of worshipping God in public among the Jews, were Morning and Evening, and that by God's own appointment; the Morning and Evening Sacrifice drawing the people together for that purpose. Thou shalt offer upon the altar two lambs of the first year : the one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning, and the other in the evening.' (Exod. xxix. 32.) Which precept was constantly observed, as long as the city and polity of the Jews stood. For Josephus says, Ais tñs huépas, opwi τε και περί εννάτην ώραν, ιερουργούντων επί του βωμού. · Twice a day, in the morning and at the ninth hour, they offer sacrifice.' Joseph. Ant. lib. xiv. C. 4. And that this was the hour of prayer, for devout people to go to the temple, to perform their devotions there, is plain from Acts iii. 1. •Peter and John went up together into the temple, being the ninth hour,' which is confirmed by the Talmud. R. Jose Ben Chaninah saith, • The patriarchs appointed the prayers.' R. Josua Ben Levi saith, “They appointed them according to the daily sacrifices. Morning Prayer is till the fourth hour; the prayer of the Mincha, or the Evening, is till evening.'"-Beracoth, cited by Dr. Lightfoot, Talm. Ex. p. 649.
• Upon this account, the primitive Christians, who would not be behind-hand with the Jews in their devotion, did constantly observe these two solemn times of prayer, and did very early
add a third. For, as some devout Jews had a third hour, which they devoted to prayer, viz. (our twelve o'clock) when they retired to some closet, or other private place, to say their prayers, as we see in the example of Peter, who went up on the house-top to pray about the sixth hour (Acts x. 9.): so the primitive Christians turned this hour, which was formerly voluntary, into a settled hour of public devotion. For so it was settled before St. Cyprian's time; for this Father gives a rationale of the institution of the three solemn hours of prayer. The Morning Prayer (he says) was instituted in remembrance of Christ's resurrection ; the Noon Prayer in remembrance of His crucifixion, and the Evening prayer in token of His death, (Vide Cyp. de Or. Dom.) which is confirmed likewise by a passage in St. Clemens of Alexandria, Εί τινες και ώρας τάκτας απονέμουσιν ευχή, ως τρίτην, φέρε, και έκτης, και εννάτην, &c. “Though some are for stated hours of prayer, viz. 9, 12, and 3 o'clock; yet the ó y WOTLKÒS, the most perfect Christian, will be always praying." (Clem. Alex. Strom. vii.) Soon after, the monks, who would be more devout than common Christians, were for more. hours of stated prayer: and in St. Basil's time, they had mounted them up to seven. (Op. tom. ii. p. 479.) At last these were established by decree of Pope Pelagius II., and the Psalms appointed for each hour, which was the rise of what they call canonical hours in the Church of Rome. (Pol. Virg. de Rer. Inv. lib. ii. c. 2.) But our Church, in her reformation, has brought back the solemn times of prayer to the most ancient institution, and enjoined only morning and evening prayer to be used."Dr. Nicholl's note on “ Proper Lessons for Sundays."
19. Day by day, &c. (see No. 6.) “ Therefore in the words of the Psalmist let us say, ' Every day do we bless thee, and praise thy name for ever and ever,' be pleased therefore to answer the petitions of this day's devotion, and to preserve us from sin, till the course of our public exercise returns to-morrow.”—Dr. Nicholls, Paraphrase on the Te Deum.
20. CREED.—"St. Ambrose (Ad Virg. lib. iii.) advises the use of the Creed every morning. And St. Austin (De Symb. ad Cat. lib. i.) morning and night. King Canutus ordered it to be used in our daily devotion."- Id. Notes on the Apostles' Creed. [But see No. 26. of this Collection.]
21. “ The latter part of the Collect for Grace (see No. 7.) does exactly agree with that in the Greek Liturgies : Awpnoai iquiv tò λοιπόν της παρουσίας ημέρας, ειρηνικών και αναμάρτητον, και Távra tòy xpóvov tñs Swñs iuõv. Euchol. Gr. Lucern. Orat. 2." -Ip. Note on the Collect for Grace.
22. “ And we beseech thee, out of thy tender mercy to all thy creatures, and especially to thy faithful servants, that thou wouldest be pleased to defend us from all the dangers which the night brings along with it; from fire and thieves ; from diseases and sudden death ; from all unchaste thoughts and frightful dreams; and that thou wouldest preserve us in health and safety to the next morning."-Id. Paraph. on the third Collect at Evening Prayer.
23. Bishop OVERALL.-Of ministers daily saying the service. - This was so ordered in the Council of Venice, under Pope Leo I., and after that in the Council of Mentz, Can. 57. ricus, quem intra muros civitatis suæ manere constiterit, et matutinis hymnis, sine probabili excusatione ægritudinis, inventus fuerit defuisse, septem diebus a communione habeatur extraneus," &c.-Bishop Overall ap. Nicholls.
24. “ All the priests and deacons shall be bound to say daily," .“ So that we are all bound, and all priests are in the Church of Rome, daily to repeat and say the public service of the Church. And it is a precept the most useful and necessary of any other that belongs to the ministers of God, and such as have cure of other men's souls, would men regard it and practise it a little more than they do among us. We are all for preaching now ; and for attending the service and prayers appointed by the Church for God's worship, and the good of all men, we think that too mean an office for us, and therefore, as if it were not worth our labour, we commonly hire others under us to do it, more to satisfy the law, than to be answerable to our duties. Here is a command that binds us every day to say the Morning and Evening Prayer ; How many are the men that are noted
to do it? It is well they have a back-door for an excuse to come out at here; for good men ! they are so belaboured with studying of divinity, and preaching the word, that they have no leisure to read these same common prayers; as if this were not a chief part of their office and charge committed unto them. Certainly, the people whose souls they have care of, reap as great benefit, and more too, by these prayers, which their pastors are daily to make unto God for them, either privately or publicly, as they can do by their preaching; for God is more respective to the prayers which they make for the people, than ever the people are to the sermons which they make to them."Id. ibid. p. 6.
25. Bishop Cosins." Every curate is enjoined to say the Morning and Evening Prayer daily in the Church, unless he be otherwise reasonably letted. Which requires an explanation (against them that account themselves' reasonably letted' by any common and ordinary affairs of their own) whether any thing but sickness, or necessary absence abroad, shall be sufficient to excuse them from this duty."-Bishop Cosins ap. Nicholls, 67.
26. It does not appear, (see No. 20.) from the Latin version at least, that Canute ordered the Creed to be used in the daily devotions.—See Sir H. Spelman's Councils, fc. vol. i. p.. 549.
27. Saxon CHURCH.-Excerptio 2da Egberti Archiep. Ebor. circ. An. Christi 750.
Item, Ut omnes sacerdotes, horis competentibus diei et noctis, suarum sonent ecclesiarum signa : et sacra tunc Deo celebrent officia ; et populos erudiant, quomodo aut quibus Deus adorandus est horis.”—Spelm. Conc. 1. p. 259.
Ex. ejusdem Egberti Poenitentialis Lib. 2do.
5. “Si quis clericus aut monachus corporis sanitate consistens, si vigiliis et cotidianis officiis defuerit, perdat communionem."
6. “Si quis clericus, absque corpusculi sui inæqualitate, vigiliis deest, stipendio privatus, excommunicetur.”
7. “Si quis clericus, dato signo, non statim ad ecclesiam properaverit, correptionibus subjacebit.”-Spelman, Conc. vol. i.
28. “Docemus etiam, ut quis statis temporibus campanas pulset, et ut omnis tunc sacerdos cantum suum horarium in ecclesia psallat, Deum in timore invocet solicite, et pro omni populo preces fundat."-Canon. dat. sub Edg. Reg. Spelm. i. p. 453. 29. “ De mane et vespere
orando. “ Dicendum illis ut singulis diebus, qui amplius non potest, saltem duabus vicibus oret ; mane scilicet et vespere, dicens symbolum sive Orationem Dominicam ; Qui plasmasti me miserere mei; vel etiam, Deus propitius esto mihi peccatori.' Et Domino gratias agens pro quotidianæ vitæ commeatibus, et quia se ad imaginem suam creare dignatus sit, et a peccatoribus segregare ; his actis, et solo Deo Creatore suo adorato sanctos invocet, ut pro se intercedere ad majestatem divinam dignentur ; hæc facient quibus basilicæ locus prope est in basilica. Qui vero in itinere, aut pro qualibet occasione in sylvis aut in agris est, ubicunque enim hora matutina vel vespertina invenerit, sic faciat, sciens Deum ubique præsentem esse, dicente Psalmista, “ In omni loco dominationis ejus, et si ascendero in cælum, tu ibi es,” &c.--Spelm. Conc. 23tia Capit, incert. Edit. vol. i. p. 599.
. 30. Dr. Bisse.-" Though the public worship be appointed to be daily offered up in our parish churches, and in some few is offered up according to appointment; yet in these great temples (Cathedrals) the morning and evening sacrifice is never intermitted : it is offered day by day continually, even as the Lamb under the law. These are the great mother churches in every diocese, from which the parochial churches being originally derived, and upon which being dependent, are to be looked upon as parts of them, and belonging to them, as living members of the same body; and therefore the acts and offerings which are offered up in these greater, are accepted for all the lesser parish churches within their dependence, where the daily offering is not upon just cause observed, as indeed it generally cannot ; even as the daily sacrifice of the temple was imputed to the several synagogues, where only the law and the prophets were expounded, and that every Sabbath-day. These cathedral temples, these mother-churches, the sure resting-place for the ark of the covenant, before which the daily offering never ceaseth to be