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Published according to Ad of Parliament,
For JOHN HINTON, at the King's-Arms in
St. Paul's Church-Yard, London. 1751.

[Price Six-Pence.]

THE

Universal Magazine

OF

Knowledge and Pleasure:

FOR

JUL Y, 1751.

VOL. IX.

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WISDOM'S INSTITUTION of a Prince. Humbly . Inscribed to His Royal Highness tbe PRINCE OF WALES.

HE greatest blessing, which fures of power, without informing can happen to mankind and themselves of its just bounds ? Pride, empires, is to be governed the secret venom which accompanies

by Princes, who are well sovereign power, keeps them from instructed in true piety, and enjoy a alking counsel, and from following it. full capacity for the arts of govern. They imbibe the errors of those that ment. Such a benefaction includes Aatter them. They become indifferent, in it many other blessings; for nothing if not enemies to truth. They accusis more excellent than that which most tom themselves to confound reason and perfectly resembles God; and the justice with their will. They abandon noblest image of the Deity is a Prince, themselves to sensual pleasures, while who is just, moderatę, chaste, holy, the whole weight of public affairs is and who reigns only that he may thrown upon ochers. They live and make virtue flourish.

die without knowing either the origin But how often do we find Princes, of their power,or its lawful use, and the either not well instructed in their du- account they must render of it: and ties, or the first tincture of their good they are all their days strangers to their education foon defaced? How many dominions and their people, whole have given themselves up to the plea. wants they are ignorant of, whose Numb. LVIII. Vol. IX,

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happiness

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happiness they neglect, and whose verns in the name of God to protect groans they despise.

virtue, and to punish vice; to render Therefore it is of the greatest con- to men all the assistance they want, sequence to every one, who is destined and to defend them against every thing to reign, duly to comprehend, firit of that is unjust, or capable of disturbing all, the infinite distance between a

the public peace. Prince, whom God sets over a people,

“' Hear therefore, O ye Kings ! whom he loves, and designs to load what wisdom faith, (Wisd. vi. 2, &c.) with blessings ; and one, to whom he and understand: Learn ye that are only communicates authority, to be judges of the ends of the earth. Give an instrument of his displeasure and ear ye that rule the people, and glory vengeance. The one he gives in in the multitude of nations. For mercy; the other in his wrath. He power is given you of the Lord, and fills one with wisdom, and the love of sovereignty from the Highest,who shall justice; and the other he permits, for try your works, and search out your secret reasons, beyond the reach of counsels. Because, being minifters our discovery, to follow his own blind of his kingdom, ye have not judged counsels and unruly passions. The aright, nor kept the law, nor walked one is a public blessing; the other after the counsel of God. Horribly a public curse. All the virtues and and speedily shall he come upon you s advantages of human life are the na- for a sharp judgment shall be to them tural fruits of the former administra. that are in high places.” They ought tion ; and all its vices and plagues are to be just and faithful in proportion to the chastisements for which the other their power. They shall be punished is intended.

as Princes, because they were not I will thew thee, therefore, O Prince! made fuch for any other reason but to who art born to govern a powerful be servants of God, with eminent nation, what ought to be thy Icope, in power and extensive liberty. order to make thy people happy, and A Prince ought to look upon himself what are the proper means of attain- as designed for the service of the State,

and not as made for himself alone. It is The first disposition or quality of obvious that a Prince, being the minister a Prince, is, to consider and know of God for the public good, it is to the the origin of his authority. Submis- people he is given, to render justice, fion to the more powerful was intro- to prevent violence, to preserve peace duced into society, as necessary for the and equality; to defend the State from quiet and safety of individuals. God foreign enemies, and to make it interratified this authority. And hence is nally happy. It is therefore the same established that general maxim,“That thing to be King, and to be for the all power comes from God ;” because good of the republic ; to be for the his providence has not only permitted people, and to be Sovereign. One is the project and the inventors; but he born for others, if he be born to has rendered the power of government mand them, since he ought not to sacred, by an immediate communica- command them but for their benefit. tion of his own authority to those in. It is the foundation and character of vested with it.

the Royal State, not to be for themSince it is certain that God is the felves. It is the effence of their gransource of sovereign power, Princes are deur to be confecrated to the public the ministers of God, established for good. They are for all, because all this sole and essential reason, that they is entrusted to them. They are not may be his servants. The King reigns for themselves merely, becaufe it is that he may be the first in rendering impoffible to separate them from the obedience to God, and that he may boly, of which they are the soul and make all others obey him. He go spirit. They are so closely united with

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thé republic, that one cannot distin- revoke his commission. He supports guiin what belongs to them from what to his subjects the august character of belongs to it. And one may as well a Sovereign, because he is invested fuppofe a real distinction, in respect of with it; and he preserves the modelty interest, between the head and the of a subject towards God, the King of other members of the body, as between Kings. He commands, and he obeys; a Prince and his subjects.-- This is and he does not command, but in obewhat was strongly represented to a

dience : and he thoroughly compre. young Prince by his preceptor Seneca : hends that, the higher he is elevated “ The republic, said he is not for you, above men, the less that elevation bebut, on the contrary, you are for it: longs to him, who at bottom has noand, the moment any one devotes him. thing but what is natural to all men. self to the service of the empire, he

The Prince that is endowed with ought to forget himself.” A King wisdom, knows that he is born with owes himself intirely to it: all that the same weaknesses as other mortals; he is, he is for the sake of the people that in his infancy he stood in need of God hath given him the care of. If, the fame fuccours; that he shall have therefore, he ever loses fight of the the same common end ; that Royalty only foundation and end of his autho. hath dill left him internally the same rity; if he is indifferent about his with those who are not Princes; and people; if his attention and care are that he shall leave it, and be as those intirely turned towards other objects; who were never invested with it ; that if he persuades himself that all is it is, therefore, with respect to him, made for him, and that all ought to an adventitious state ; and that he be subfervient to his ambition, volup- 'would grofly deceive himself, if he tuousness and passions, he deviates from sould judge of himself, and of his his duty, debases the image of God, real condition, by what is absolutely frustrates the end of his exaltation, and distinct and separate from it. incurs not only the contempt of all : Let therefore a Prince, whom ambi.' good men, but the juft indignation of tion hath not wholly corrupted, feri. the Almighty.

oully compare what he is internally Hearken then with earnest attention with that borrowed power, which he to what is said to a young Prince by can only retain a few years. Let him one of the most illustrious fathers : not confound his everlasting interest

Honour your purple; acknowledge with an administration that shall be the great design of God in your per- taken from him. Let him maturely son : he governs by himself heavenly reflect upon the unhappy error of those things : he divides the government of who appropriate Royalty to themselves those on earth with you. A&t therefore in such a manner, that they can never like him, and as in his place towards consider themselves without it; and your subjects ; and exhibit his conduct who never call to mind, that the longin yours.'

eft reign, weře it as extensive as the Be not deceived by worldly gran- universe, is but a point, in compårifon deur. A Prince is not the source of of that valt, boundless eternity, in it. It is only lent to him. Sovereign- which all dignities cease, and the use ty, in its origin, appertains to God made of them only fubfifts for ever. alone. He finds himself equally sub

I would not hereby be supposed to ject to God with all the rest of man- decry 'all pomp and magnificence, by kind, though he hath an authority which Princes demand an outward re. over others that belongs to him alone. fpect from the admiring multitude : And he considers himself, with respect with respect to such it would be almost to God, as being a King by trust and to degrade a Prin e, to take fromshim deputation, of which he exercises the all that pageantry that dazzles them. jurisdiction, till it fall please God to But he must not place any part of his

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happiness in a magnificence he is for gents no other means but reason and
bid to set his heart upon, in which prudence; to enter into their real
there is nothing solid, and which is wants, to satisfy their just inclinations ;
only excusable on account of the weak. to preserve whatever is good in them,
ness of those for whose fake it is neces- and to oppose or remedy whatever is
sary, and the impossibility of maintain- wrong or unjust among them.
ing the respect due to sovereign autho- One must have a very low idea of
rity without such methods. Amidst Royalty to confine it merely to power,
all such state and pomp, he ought to exclusive of reason. Would we trust
have the love of moderation, and even an imprudent man with the govern-
of fimplicity, well established in his ment of a city, with its laws, its com-
mind. It ought to afflict him in se- merce, its liberties and immunities?
cret, that he may not reject and put What rashness then muft it be to under-
away all that troublesome pageantry, take the care and government of a
which ever follows him, and is truly vast empire, consisting of millions of
a burdensome restraint; and he ought men, without endeavouring to under-
to retrench whatever is not absolutely stand thoroughly what they are, and
requisite to the support of authority. thence to learn one's duty towards 'em ?
Princes of solid merit know how to A good Prince ardently desires to
make up many ways what they seem know how men are moved, attracted,
to lose, by cutting off something from governed, filled with admiration and
their outward pomp and splendor, high esteem; that he may lay himself
They make themselves to be respected out to attain all those qualities which
by their prudent conduct upon a much are able to produce such effects. He
more sure and lasting foundation than is earnest to know what they expect
they are by their external magnifi- of their Governor, that he may not

The love and confidence of fall short of their expectation. He their people, which they know how will enquire, why it is their interest to to gain, attaches them more and more submit themselves to him, that he may firmly to them than the vain admira- govern and manage their interests in tion of an unnecessary grandeur.

such a manner, that their submission to Whoever is truly worthy of ruling a him may be more secure and constant. people, ought to be ashamed to owe He will carefully attend to what may his authority to such filly mean sup- offend them, or excite their diffidence, ports; and he ought always to have that he may diligently avoid it. He that maxim, one of the greatest Em- will look attentively into their desires perors of Rome ever had present be. and inclinations, that he may discern fore his mind : That it is virtue and what it is fit or unfit to grant them, true magnanimity, and not external left he should by a foolish complaisance magnificence which gives weight and have any hand in encouraging evils, dignity to Sovereigns.

which ought to be hindered by his When a Prince has duly reflected firm opposition to them. He, above upon the power he has received from all things, applies himfelf to know by God, and its consequences and badges, what means men of various characters' he ought to turn his eyes towards those and interests may be united in the same with the government of whom God way of thinking'; by what methods of

has entrusted him. A trust, which he insinuation he may penetrate into their can't discharge wisely without know hearts; by what remedies he may cure ving them well: and his reign will be their prejudices ; by what degrees nothing but a train of follies and blun- may gain their confidence; and by ders, if he neglects a science, which, what fyınptoins it may be discovered, properly speaking, is the science of whether he is master enough to be aKings ; which will teach him to em- ble to eftablish all the good he fees ne ploy in the government of racional a- ceffiury; which ought to be the end of

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