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saw the board: this is allowed by all who profess to play | THE ART OF DECIPHERING THE EFFACED without seeing the board. I grant that some succeed

INSCRIPTIONS OF COINS. better than others, but none so well as if they saw the pieces. It is not necessary to be very skilful in order to play without seeing the board, for common players succeed in it; allowing the difference in play between seeing and not seeing the pieces.-Lewis's Translation of Carrera.

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PM TREX.

1111 РР,

UNION BETWEEN SOUL AND BODY.

In the education of the intellectual powers, two chief ends are to be kept in view: first, the most advantageous developement of these powers themselves; and, second, the communication of the greatest amount of knowledge capable of

BRITANNIA

BRITANNIA being brought into useful application:-British and Foreign Medical Review.

It is obvious that we can have no guarantee that speci. It must always be the condition of a great part of mankind mens of the works of antiquity, relics of the times to reject and embrace tenets upon the authority of those gone by,—should pass through the long vale of years, whom they think wiser than themselves. --Dr. Samuel unmutilated, and uncontaminated: for such works were Johnson.

neither laid up for the benefit of the modernis, nor were A man's own heart must ever be given to gain that of many of them, individually at least, held to be of extraanother.-GOLDSMITH.

ordinary value at the time of their production. To this

number may be referred the coins and medals which were To adopt popular opinions without the slightest hesitation, struck by races of people long ago extinct, and which is to run the risk of introducing into science, to its great in

now speak so much for their general history, their jury, a multitude of confused notions founded on phenomena

manners, customs, laws, religion, and arts. imperfectly seen and inaccurately examined; but to reject

,

As we cannot therefore hope to handle a coin clean opportunity of important discovery.—Magazine of Popular from the Greek or Roman mint, and as we are naturally Science,

curious to know from what part of the entire body, a fragment of antiquity may have fallen off, so, when we

hold in our hands a piece of money, used perhaps for WHEN we die, we do not cease to be, nor cease to live, the commonest purposes of life, by our terrestrial predebut only cease to live in these earthly bodies; the vital

cessors of 1500 or 2000 years ago, we are eager to find out union between the soul and body is dissolved, we are no

from it the nation it once belonged to, the prince whose longer encloistered in a tabernacle of flesh, we no longer feel the impressions of it

, neither the pains nor pleasures of portrait seems to glimmer through the metallic mist, the body can affect us : it can charm, it can tempt no longer.

and all the subsidiary information, which it may furnish, This needs no proof, but very well deserves our most serious and which our general knowledge of the history of that meditations.

nation concurs to elucidate. When, therefore, the coin For this teaches us the difference and distinction between has become much or wholly defaced by accident, or the soul and body, which men who are sunk into flesh and wear and tear of time, it is evident that any means sense are apt to forget ; nay, to lose the very notion and

which shall bring again to light that which has been belief of it. All their delights are fleshly; they know no other pleasures but what their five senses furnish them with: effaced, are desirable to practise, even if the coin should

be so eventually injured; for it is plain that an illegible they cannot raise their thoughts above this body, nor entertạin any noble designs, and therefore they imagine that they

coin or medal is of no use whatever, beyond its mere are nothing but flesh and blood, a little organized and ani- weight of metal. mated clay; and it is no great wonder that men who feel the It has been for a long time known that the legend, or workings and motions of no higher principle of life within inscription, on a worn-out coin may be traced and dethem, but flesh and sense, should imagine that they are ciphered by putting the coin on a hot iron. It is not nothing but flesh themselves. Though methinks, when we known who first made this discovery, nor was an explasee the senseless and putrefying remains of a brave man nation of this fact ever afforded until very lately. before us, it is hard to conceive that this is all of him; that

When the coin is laid upon a red-hot iron, an oxidathis is the thing which some few hours ago could reason and discourse ; was fit to govern a kingdom, or to instruct

tion takes place over its whole surface. The term 0.rimankind; could despise flesh and sense, and govern all his dation implies a combination of the metal with the bodily appetites and inclinations, and was adorned with all oxygen of the atmosphere; and the oxidized portion divine graces and virtues; was the glory and pride of the therefore, covers the metal like a thin plate, depending age. And is this dead carcase, which we now see, the for the colour or tint which it assumes upon its thickness. whole of him? Or was there a more divine inhabitant, The film of oxide produced by laying the coin upon a which animated this earthly machine, which gave life and

hot iron changes its tint with the intensity or continuance beauty to it, but which is now removed ?

of the heat. The parts, however, where the figure or the When we consider that we consist of soul and body, which are the two distinct parts of man, this will teach us

letters of the inscription had existed, oxidate at a to take care of both. For can any man who believes he has different rate from the surrounding parts; so that these a soul be concerned only for his body? A compound crea- letters exhibit their shapes, and become legible in conseture cannot be happy, unless both parts of him enjoy their quence of the film of oxide which covers them having a proper pleasures. He who enjoys only the pleasures of the

different thickness, and therefore reflecting a different tint body is never the happier for having a human and reason

from that of the adjacent parts*. The tints thus deveable soul : the soul of a beast would have done as well, and

loped sometimes pass through many orders of brilliant it may be better; for brute creatures relish bodily pleasures as much, and it may be more than men do ; and reason is colours, particularly pink and green, and settle in a bronze, troublesome to those men who resolve to live like

and sometimes in a black tint, which rests upon the very brutes, for it makes them ashamed and afraid, which in figure and inscription alone. In some cases the tint left on many cases hinders, or at least allays their pleasures. And the trace of the letters is so very faint that it can but why should not a man desire the full and entire happiness just be seen, and may be entirely removed by a slight

man? Why should he despise , rub of the finger. ought to take as much care of our souls as of our bodies.

described, are thus accounted for by Sir David Brewster. Do we adorn our bodies that we may be fit to be seen, and

When we take a plane disk of silver, that has never been to converse with men, and may receive those respects which are due to our quality and fortune, and shall we not adorn hammered or compressed, its surface will oxidate equally, our souls too with those Christian graces which make us

* For the colours of thin plates, as depending upon their thickness, lovely in the sight of God and men ? --Dean SuerLock.

see the papers on the SOAP-BUBBLE, Vol. XV., p. 199, et seq.

if all its parts be equally heated. But, in the process of oxidated, and the film of oxide radiating more powerfully converting this disk into a coin, the sunk parts are those than the rest of the coin will be more luminous than the which were most compressed by the prominent parts of other parts; so that the inscription, illegible before, may the die; and the elevated parts are those which were be now distinctly read. The acid is not absolutely least compressed; the metal being in the latter condition necessary to this experiment, when using a thin silver left, as it were, more in its natural state. The raised coin. letters and figures on a coin have, therefore, less density To understand the reason why inscriptions become than the other parts, and these rts oxidate sooner or at legible in the dark, whether the coin is in a perfect state, a lower temperature. When the letters of the legend or the letters of it are worn off, we must remember that all are worn off by friction, the parts immediately below black or rough surfaces radiate light more than polished them have also less density than the surrounding metal; or smooth surfaces; and hence the inscription is lumiand the site, as it were, of the letters therefore, receives nous when it is rough, and obscure when it is polished; from heat a degree of oxidation, and a colour, different and the letters covered with black oxide are more lumi. from that of the surrounding surface. Hence ensues nous than the adjacent parts, on account of the superior the revival of the invisible letters by unequal oxidation. radiation of light by the black oxide which covers

The influence of the difference of density may like- them. wise be observed in the beautiful oxidations which are Sir David Brewster suggests that by means such as produced on the surface of highly polished steel, heated these, invisible writing might be conveyed from one place in contact with air, at temperatures between 430° and to another, by impressing it upon a metallic surface, and 630°. When the steel has hard portions, called by the afterwards erasing it by grinding and polishing that workmen, pins, the uniform tint of the film of oxide surface quite smooth. When exposed to the requisite stops near these hard portions, which always exhibit degree of heat, the secret writing would start forth in colours different from those of the rest of the mass. oxidated letters. These parts, owing to their greater density, absorb Some old coins, when being heated, have given out oxygen from the air in a less degree than the surround- brilliant red globules, accompanied with a smell of ing portions. The steel, then expanded by heat, absorbs sulphur; and sometimes, small globules, like those of oxygen, which, being united with the metal, forms the quicksilver, have exuded from the surface. Some coins coloured film. As the heat increases, a greater quantity give out an intolerable smell; and an Indian pagoda of oxygen is absorbed, and the film increases in thick. became perfectly black,when placed upon the heated iron. ness.

These results are due to the impurity of the metal and When the experiment is often repeated with the same the nature of the alloy. coin, and the oxidations successively removed after each The cut at the head of this article shows the reverse experiment, the film of oxide continues to diminish, and of a Roman coin of the second century, in which at last, ceases to appear at all; but it recovers the pro. the province of Britain is personified. The figure perty in the course of time. When the coin is put upon BRITANNIA is found upon many other Roman coins, the hot iron, and when the oxidation is greatest, a smoke which were struck for Britain, and has been now used arises from the coin, which diminishes, like the film of in the English copper coinage for 168 years past. The oxide, by constant repetition. Sir David Brewster has legend implies that the emperor Commodus, whose bust found from many trials that it is always the raised parts is on the obverse, was “ Pontifex Maximus,"— “in the of a coin, and in modern coins the elevated ledge round 10th

year of his tribunal authority," —“in the 7th year the inscription, that first become oxidated.

of his reign," or A.D. 186,-and, “in the 4th year of There is a very curious experiment connected with his consulship:"-also, that he was " Father of his this subject, which goes beyond anything hitherto country." related. This to take a silver coin, (which answers the purpose best), and after polishing the surface as much as possible, to make the raised parts rough

Bouyp up amid the thousand ties by the action of an acid, the sunk parts being left clean,

Ofman's mysterious sympathies, and polished. If the coin thus prepared be placed upon

Is that strange feeling, that hath birth a mass of rest hot iron, and removed into a dark room,

While, gazing on our parent carth,

The spirit to itself transfers the inscription upon it will become more luminous than

The sunshine or the gloom of hers. the rest, so that it may be distinctly read off. The coin

Who hath not felt the peace that lies should be viewed, during this experiment, through a

On fields that smile ʼneath summer skies tube blackened on the inside ; by which means the eye

Who to thi' eternal hymn of ocean will be in a fitter state for observing the effect, and will be

Responds not with as pure devotion, somewhat protected from the heat and smoke. If, instead

Nor drinks a joy of sterner mood of polishing the depressed parts, and roughening the

From rugged hill or pathless wood ?-HANKINSON, raised parts of the coin, we polish the raised parts, and roughen the depressed parts, the inscription and figure | When Smeaton had reflected long, in search of that form will be less luminous than the depressed parts; but we which would be best fitted to resist the combined action of shall be able to distinguish them, from their seeming to

wind and waves, he found it in the trunk of the oak. be traced in black characters on a white ground. The

When Watt was employed to conduct the supply of water. different appearances of a coin, according as the raised

across the Clyde to the city of Glasgow, he borrowed his parts are polished or roughened, are shown in the figures sidering the flexibility of the lobster's tail; and so, when

admirable contrivance of a flexible water-main froin conat the head of this article. In the left hand cut, the

Mr. Brunel was engaged in superintending the construction raised parts are polished: in the right hand cut they are

of the tunnel under the Thames, it was from observing the roughened.

head of an apparently insignificant insect, that he derived The most surprising form of this experiment is when his first conception of the ingenious shield, which he introwe use a coin from which the inscription has been either duced in advance of the workmen, to protect them from wholly obliterated, or so much obliterated as to be being crushed by the falling in of the earth. It becomes us, illegible: such are the shillings and sixpences of the last

then, while we trace the operations of human ingenuity generation: those of England, France, and Spain, serve

in adapting means to its proposed ends, to raise our thoughts the purpose of the experiment very nicely. The results

to that Divine architect who has imprinted traces of his with copper coins are more difficult to obtain, and are

wisdom and power on all his works: causing the heavens to

deelare his glory, and the earth, throughout all its domains less palpable: but when we lay a silver coin upon the of land, sea, and air, to show forth his handiwork.-DA. red-hot iron, the places of the letters and figures become POTTER.

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RURAL SPORTS FOR THE MONTHS or melting in their descent, you cannot tell which. The
DECEMBER.

mottled pebbles begin to move: you throw a stone at them,

to show that you can move pebbles as well as the mountein. We have chosen the Ptarmigan as the subject of our The stone hits beyond them; they run towards your feet present article, not because the pursuit of that bird is as if claiming protection: they are birds,-ptarmigan,-the esteemed by sportsmen as deserving particular notice,

uppermost tenants of the island, wbom not even winds which

could uproot forests, and frosts which could all but congeal -on the contrary, it is characterised as a tame and un

mercury, can drive from these their mountain haunts. It has interesting sport, requiring little enterprise, and gaining often been observed that of all the human inhabitants of the little merit.—but that we may draw the attention of our earth, the mountaineer, be his mountain ever so barren, is readers to some remarkable circumstances in the natural the last to quit and the same holds true of the mountainhistory of this tenant of the regions of frost and show.

bird. The ptarmigan belongs to the grouse family, and is The sportsmen who find pleasure in climbing the sometimes called the " white grouse.' Its home is near granite cliffs, and wading the winter snows in which the the tops of elevated mountains, and it seems so averse ptarmigans delight to bury themselves, are few indeed. to the kindly influence of the sun's rays, that as soon as An excursion of this nature must be regarded as the snow begins to melt on the sides of the hills, it journey of curiosity, for the purpose of viewing the ascends still higher, until it gains the summit, where it wilder and more imposing features of our country, rather forms holes, and burrows in the snow. Most of the than as a sporting engagement which is to yield any proAlpine districts of Europe abound in ptarmigans, and fitable return. The flesh of the ptarmigan except when even as far north as Greenland they are very numerous. taken very early in the season, is much inferior to that The Greenlanders catch them in nooses dropped over of the red-grouse, being less juicy, and deficient in tlavour. their necks, and account them a great luxury: they eat The chief interest attaching to the bird arises from the them, either dressed or raw, and do not object to them peculiarity of its haunts, the simplicity of its habits, and in a decaying state; the intestines are reckoned a great the periodical changes in the colour of its plumage. delicacy, and are eaten with train-oil and berries

. The "The plumage of the ptarmigan has been called “a Greenland women adorn themselves with the tail feathers natural thermometer,” on account of its variations in of the bird, and the men wear shirts made of the skins, colour with the variations in temperature during the differwith the feathers next the body. The Laplanders take ent seasons of the year. The summer plumage is yellow, these birds by making a hedge of birch branches with more or less inclining to brown, and elegantly mottled small openings at intervals. In each of these openings with black, grey, and white: the quills of the wings, is a snare, and the ptarmigans in their search after the twenty-four in number, have black shafts and white webs young buds and catkins of the trees are easily caught. The tail feathers are sixteen in number, seven on each

The Hudson's Bay ptarmigan, otherwise called the side, and two in the centre, the shafts of which are black. willow partridge, is remarkable on account of the im- As autumn advances, these colours undergo a gradual mense numbers which are taken. Their flesh is much

change : the black and brown become paler and paler; esteemed by the Europeans of the settlement, and they then the grey fades, until when the winter is fully set in, are said to be as tame as chickens. The usual mode of the whole plumage becomes of a snowy white, except the taking them is by fixing a net twenty feet square, to eye-streak in the male, the outer tail feathers, and the four poles, and by means of a rope fastened to these shafts of the middle ones. This change does not take props to have the power of pulling down the net at any place in consequence of a moult, or falling-off of coloured moment. Persons are employed to drive the birds in feathers, to be replaced by white ones; but the change the direction of the net, and when a sufficient number

actually takes place in the colour of the feathers themare assembled, the concealed manager of the rope lets selves, while at the same time the plumage becomes down the net, and often entraps from fifty to sixty. From fuller, thicker, and more downy; the bill is almost conNovember to the end of April it is reckoned that ten cealed, and the legs are covered down to the very toes thousand of these birds are taken for the use of the with hair-like feathers. settlement. The name of willow partridge has been These changes in colours, have been attributed to a given to the ptarmigans of that country from their kind provision of nature to enable the birds more effecassembling in large flocks at the beginning of October to tually to escape their enemies.

Now it is certainly true, feed among the willows.

that the summer vest of the ptarmigan' bears some In Britain, this bird is only to be met with on the resemblance to the broken tints produced by the brown summits of the highest hills, among the Highlands of patches of heath on the mountain slopes, which this Scotland, in the Hebrides and Orkneys, and sometimes bird frequents, and so far screens it from observation: on the lofty hills of Cumberland and Wales. We may

so also does its white livery serve the purpose of concealtraverse the heights covered with heather, and still be ment when its home is in the snow. But if this be one far below the abode of the ptarmigan. To reach his of the reasons for the change, it is not the principal one. cliffy and desolate abode you must ascend until, in the Many of the polar animals, and others which inhabit language of one of our popular writers,

the colder regions of the temperate zone, undergo a You begin at last to feel alone, severed entirely from the change in colour similar to that of the ptarmigan, world of society, of life, and of growth, and committed to and the rapidity of the change has been observed to the solitude of the ancient hills and immeasurable sky. The depend upon the severity of the season. A little attensnow lies thick on the side of the summit, and even peers tion to the science of heat, will assist us on the present over the top, defying the utmost efforts of solstitial heat.

occasion. The temperature of all bodies įš greatly There is no plant under your feet, save lichen on the rock, apparently as hard and stony as that to which it adheres influenced by the colour of their surfaces; those which it can hardly be said to grow—and moss in some crevice,

are white reflect most of the heat which falls

upon

them: undistinguishable from the dull and cold mud into which

those that are black absorb it; so that if a white and a the storms of many winters have abraded the granite. black body be exposed to a high temperature, the latter And what are the objects which present themselves

will be heated much sooner than the former. But on to notice in this region of snow?

the other hand, a white body parts with its heat slowly, A few mottled pebbles, or at least what appear to be so,

-a black body quickly; hence, if both be placed in a each about twice the size of your hand, lie at some distance,

low temperature, the latter will cool much sooner than

the former. These where the decomposed rock, and the rudiments of what may

acts have long been established be called the most elevated mountain vegetation, just begin

with respect to inanimate natter, but they apply with to ru flle the surface. By and by, a cloud shadows the sun, equal force to animals: by the healthy performance of the air blows chill as November, and a few drops fall, freezing certain functions (chiefly, respiration and the circulation

ENTRANCE INTO THE TROPICS.

of the blood), heat is constantly supplied, and thus is Another species of ptarmigan, known as the rock ptarmaintained a temperature necessary to perpetuate the migan, has lately been brought into this country, but it functions of life: a portion of the animal heat always extremely rare.

It is somewhat smaller in size, and may escapes from the surface of the body by radiation: if | be distinguished from the common ptarmigan, by the black the heat escape faster than it is formed, the temperature feathers of the back being cut into upon the edges, with of the animal body will fall to such a point, that it is no patches of yellow only; which, contrasted with the larger longer sufficient to maintain life;—but, if the body be size and grey plumage of the other, serves to render it protected by substances which conduct and radiate heat conspicuous. very slowly, such for example as our winter clothing and the feathers, wool and fur of animals, heat escapes less quickly than it is formed, and the animal is thus

As we found our way into the Tropics, we observed that enabled to inhabit a spot, the temperature of which is

the atmosphere became clearer and clearer; no mists were greatly below that of its own body.

perceptible, the sun seldom obscured, and the appearance of Not only is the plumage of the ptarmigan adapted by the sky and stars at night peculiarly bright and clear. The Providence for the peculiar situation in which the moon, in these latitudes, often assumes an almost vertical bird is placed, but in respect of its general form the position; and many of the stars which belong to the same adaptation is apparent. It stands more firmly on southern hemisphere are visible. Before daylight one mornits legs than the other birds of its race, and presents ing, the captain called me upon deck to'look at the Southern but little resistance to the wind, in consequence of its One of the five stars which form the cross, however, is or

Cross; which is certainly a constellation of rare beauty. crouching attitude. Its feet and claws, though feathered

inferior magnitude, and not in the true position; which down to the very toes, are not impeded or encumbered somewhat mars the image. When I turned towards the on this account, for the surface of the mountains is east, I enjoyed a still finer spectacle. The horn of an almost generally dry, and pools of water are speedily converted expiring inoon, Venus, and Mars, were in all their splendour: into ice. The bill is remarkably strong, and is well and the profusion of azure, lilac, ultramarine, pea-green, fitted to crush the hard berries, lichens, &c., on which orange, and crimson, which mantled the sky about half an the bird feeds. It is a habit with the gallinidæ in hour before sunrise, I never before saw equalled.—GURNET. general to swallow gravel, and the proportion found in the stomach of the ptarmigan is said to exceed that of To ask the question, “What is knowledge ?'' is but another any other bird. In winter these birds congregate, and way of inquiring, “What is God?" for human learning

deserves the name of knowledge only in the proportion in live peaceably together, sheltering themselves in holes in the earth, or snow, and even burrowing through the tor in the visible and unseen universe of which we form a

which it is able to display the workings of the All-wise Crealatter until they contrive to reach the scanty vegetation part. There is, indeed, a mass of general information that is lying beneath its surface. About the month of June useful to the individual in his relations to the society of his they disperse in pairs, and make circular nests a little home and country; but this is, for the most part, confined lower down the mountain. The number of their eggs to transient customs and opinions, and is for ever being varies from six to twelve or fifteen; and the young birds swallowed up in that flood of knowledge which has inereased are covered with down, of a colour similar to that of from age to age, spreading its waves with a wider sweep their parents' summer plumage. This descent of the through each succeeding generation, and which will ere long

embrace in one common bond of intelligence the great ptarmigan to a somewhat lower situation during the human family upon earth.—Manuscript Letters. breeding season, is probably with a view to find more abundant food for their young, but it subjects them to

The real philosopher, who knows that all the kinds of truth many dangers, which in their more elevated home they

are intimately connected, and that all the best hopes and had altogether escaped. The old birds are often obliged encouragements which are granted to our nature must be to fight desperately in defence of their young, and as consistent with truth, will be satisfied and confirmed, rather soon as possible they lead them away to a place of than surprised and disturbed, to find the natural sciences greater security in the mountain tops. Ptarmigans are

leading him to the borders of a higher region. To him it the favourite food of the great snowy owl, which is also

will appear natural and reasonable, that, after journeying an inhabitant of the most desolate regions of the North. universe is governed, we find ourselves at last approaching

so long among the beautiful and orderly laws by which the On perceiving this well known and powerful enemy the to a source of order and law, and intellectual beauty :-that, affrighted birds dive instantly into the loose snow, and after venturing into the region of life, and feeling, and will, make their way beneath it to a considerable distance, we are led to believe the fountain of life, and will, not to be In its favourite mountain summit, the ptarmigan has few itself unintelligent and dead, but to be a living mind, a enemies, being above the range of the fox, the mountain power which aims as well as acts. To us this doctrine cat, and the martin, and also out of the usual hunting appears like the natural cadence of the tones to which we scenes of the raven and the eagle, so that is not so liable

have so long been listening; and without such a final strain to the attacks of these formidable enemies, as are the

our ears would have been left craving and unsatistied. We

have been lingering long amid the harmonies of law and red grouse, and other tenants of the heathery regions symmetry, constancy and development; and these notes, below. As this bird is thus exempted from some of the though their music was sweet and deep, must too often have dangers common to its kind, so is it apparently deficient sounded to the ear of our moral nature, as vague and unin sagacity and resource when attacked." The expression meaning melodies, floating in the air around us, but convey. of the head is stupid or simple. Mr. Daniel calls them ing no definite thought, moulded into no intelligible aisilly birds, that are tame enough to bear driving like again caught by snatches, though sometimes interrupted

nouncement. But one passage which we have again and poultry, and suffer a stone to be flung at them without and lost, at last swells in our ears full, clear, and decidei

; their rising; with all this gentleness of disposition, it is and the religious “Hymn in honour of the Creator,” to which however, difficult to domesticate them. Yet in their Galen so gladly lent his voice, and in which the best pliv. own regions they soon become reconciled to the sight of siologists of succeeding times have ever joined, is filled inti a man, and may be caught and destroyed by any device he richer and deeper harmony by the greatest philosophers of may choose to employ against them. They are so little these later days, and will roll on hereafter, the “peranxious to hide themselves that a sportsman meeting petual song” of the temple of science.- History of the Indicwith a party may shoot them one by one, till he has tive Sciences, by the Rev. William Whewell. destroyed them all, the survivors after each discharge

LONDON: making no attempt to get out of the reach of the shot. They never, on any occasion take long flights or soar

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY aloft in the air, but fly by taking a short circle like

PARTS, PRICE SIXPENCE. pigeons.

Sold by all Bocksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom),

THE

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1. HOUSES or NORTHERN AFRICA AND Egypt.

In the warm season, this court is covered by an awning

to protect the visitors from the heat of sun:, this awning is The inhabitants of Northern Africa have for several centu- stretched out by ropes, and can be folded or drawn out at ries been connected together by certain ties which enable us pleasure. The court is generally surrounded with a colonfor some purposes to consider them as one people. Morocco, nade, over which there is a gallery of the same width as the Tunis, Fez, and till lately Algiers, have all had Moham- colonnade, with a balustrade or lattice-work in front of it. medanism as the recognised religion of the state. Their From the colonnade and gallery there are openings into large mosques are similar, their manners are similar, and, as may spacious chambers, of the same length with the court, but be supposed, their dwellings also belong, in their general seldom communicating with one another. One of them characters, to one class. All the countries which we have frequently serves for a whole family, particularly when a mentioned, lie pretty nearly under the same latitude, and are father allows his married children to live in the same house exposed to about an equal temperature, a circumstance that with him, or when two or more persons join in the rental has much influence on the form of the buildings. Under of one house. The walls of these chambers, in the houses the general name of Barbary, therefore, we will now con- of the wealthy, are covered, from the middle downwards, sider the principal features in the houses of the better classes with white, blue, red or green hangings, either of velvet or of the inhabitants.

of damask: these are suspended by hooks, so as to be taken Large doors, spacious chambers, marble pavements, clois- down at pleasure. Above these hangings is a more permatered courts, and fountains, are very general in these nent covering for the wall, such as stucco, fretwork, paintcountries, and accord well with the nature of the climate. ings, &c. The ceiling is generally of wainscot, and painted The windows, too, open not into the street, but into the in various devices, frequently including sentences from the central courts or quadrangles, a type of the jealous disposi- Koran. The floors are generally covered with painted tiles: tions of the inhabitants. The streets are generally narrow, but as the Moors seldom use any sort of seat equivalent to probably to shield the houses as much as possible from the our chair, the floor is covered with carpets and mats of rich sun. The entrance to a house from the street is through materials, on which the inmates either sit cross-legged or a porch or gateway, with benches on each side, where the lie at full length. Near the wall, however, is frequently master of the family receives visits and despatches business. placed a kind of raised platform, on which are narrow beds From hence an opening is seen into the quadrangle or court, or mattresses, as well as pillows. which is open above, and is generally paved with marble. The stairs to the upper story, when there is more than When a large assembly is to be received, such as upon the one, are situated sometimes in the porch, and at others in occasion of any grand entertainment, the court is the place the court. This staircase leads not only to the upper story, of reception, where mats and carpets are spread for the com- but also to the gallery and to the roof of the house, where pany. It has been supposed by Dr. Shaw, that on most of the Moors pass much of their time in the evening. The the occasions when our Saviour and his apostles are said to flat roofs are covered with plaster, and are surrounded either have entered houses and preached there, &c., the court or by low walls or by balustrades. The terraces serve for quadrangle was the place of reception; for there are many many domestic purposes for the use of the inmates: linen points of resemblance between the houses of Judæa and is dried there: figs and raisins are exposed there to the heat those of Barbary

of the sun; it is also frequently used as a place of devotion. VOL. XIX.

609

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