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Many of these houses have a smaller one attached to them, | apartment. The walls of this apartment contain recesses consisting of one or two rooms and a terrace. Some of them and cupboards, for the reception of water-bottles, coffee-cups, are built over the porch or gateway of the larger house, to and other domestic vessels. The ceiling of the room is which there is a door of communication. These smaller divided into compartments: those parts over the two raised houses are frequently used as places of retirement from the platforms being formed of carved beams of wood; while bustle of the central quadrangle. It has been supposed that that over the central part is carved into highly decorated and many of the houses in Syria, Palestine, &c., were anciently fanciful ornaments, and painted of very diverse colours. A provided with little retired chambers such as we here chandelier is frequently suspended from the centre. speak of,—that is, chambers secluded in some degree from All the apartments are lofty, generally about fourteen the rest of the habitable mansion. The following passages feet high. The upper rooms have often, besides lattice-work in the Bible seem to allude to some arrangement of this windows, others of coloured glass, representing flowers, kind: 2 Kings 4. 10, “Let us make a little chamber, I pray fruit, birds, &c. These coloured windows are about two thee, on the wall; and let us set for him there a bed, and feet high and one wide: they are placed above the other a table, and a stool, and a candlestick,”—Judges iii. 20, | windows, and are more for ornament than for use. “ On “ And Ehud came unto him; and he was sitting in a sum- the plastered walls of some apartments,” says Mr. Lane, mer parlour, which he had for himself alone.”—2 Sam. “are rude paintings of the temple of Mekkeh, or of the tomb xviii. 23, “And the king was much moved, and went up to of the Prophet, or of flowers and other objects, executed the chamber over the gate, and wept." While we are on by native Mooslim artists, who have not the least notion this subject, we may briefly allude to an explanation which of the rules of perspective, and who consequently defuce Dr. Shaw has offered of a part of Scripture, which, without what they thus attempt to decorate. Sometimes, also, the knowing the structure of the houses in the countries alluded walls are ornamented with Arabic inscriptions, of maxims, to, cannot be well understood. In St. Mark ii. 2, we read, &c, which are more usually written on paper, in an embel“And they came unto him bringing one sick of the palsy, lished style, and inclosed in glazed frames. No chambers which was borne by four. And when they could not come are furnished as bed-rooms. The bed, in the day-time, is nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where rolled up, and placed on one side, or in an adjoining closet, he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down called khuzneh, which, in the winter, is a sleeping place: the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay.” Now in such in summer, many people sleep upon the house-top. A mat houses as we are accustomed to, it would appear more diffi- or carpet, spread upon the raised part of the stone floor, and a cult to make a sufficiently large hole through the roof than deewan, (a row of cushions round the wall,) constitute the to force a passage through the throng. But by considering complete furniture of a room. For mcals, a round tray is the nature of the houses in those climates, Dr. Shaw thinks brought in, and placed upon a low stool, and the company the following explanation will remove every difficulty. sit round it on the ground. There is no fireplace: the The only part of a house large enough to admit a multi- room is warmed, when necessary, by burning charcoal in a tude of people was the open court or quadrangle. This chafing-dish.” The kitchens, however, have several small court was covered in hot weather by an awning capable of receptacles for fire, constructed on a kind of bench of brick. being drawn aside by means of ropes. The tops of the Many hcuses have at the top a sloping shed of boards, directed houses were flat, so that persons could walk from roof to roof towards the north or north-west, in order that the cool without difficulty, and stairs led up to the roof. It there. | breezes which blow from those quarters may be conveyed fore seems probable, that the sick man was carried up to the to an open apartment below. The roof of the house is tat, roof of the house, that the awning was drawn aside, and and generally covered with a coating of plaster. that he was lowered into the open court by ropes.
For & notice of the houses and domestic arrangements of That portion of Northern Africa occupied by Algiers need Cairo in particular, we refer to our recent sketches of that not claim our attention here, for in so far as it differs, in capital. the construction of its houses, from the countries of Barbary
2. HOUSES OF ASIATIC TURKEY. generally, the Supplements which have been given on the subject of Algiers in the Saturday Magazine will have con- Africa is united to Asiá in a singular manner. The veyed a sufficient idea. We will therefore proceed eastward, two continents are connected only by a narrow slip of and approach countries which have filled a more important land,--the isthmus of Suez, -and this isthmus, as well as page in history. The territory once known by the famed the country near it, is little better than a dreary desert. naine of Carthage occupied a portion of the space between Having passed this desest, we come to Palestine, and, Egypt and what is now called Algiers, but at present, little keeping along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, exists here to claim notice in this paper.
we arrive at Jaffa, Acre, Aleppo, and other towns. After Egypt has many remarkable peculiarities, chiefly arising this, the great peninsula of Asia Minor brings us to the from the mixture of Turkish and Arabic manners and Black Sea, and the provinces of European Turkey. Now modes of living prevalent in the country. The houses of throughout this range of country, Turkish influence is Egypt depend a good deal, for their form and characte more or less prevalent, and there are a good many features the religion of the inhabitants; they have in general either common to all the towns extending from Jerusalem at the one or two stories above the ground floor, and there is south-east to Smyrna at the north-west. The city of often a small unpaved court in the middle of the building, Aleppo is well situated as a representative of the towns with various apartments surrounding it. There is a narrow of Western Asia generally. To the north of it is Asia passage leading into this court from the street, and in the Minor: to the south, Palestine; and to the east, are passage is å stone seat for the porter and other servants. those numerous provinces which have, at one time or In the court itself is generally to be seen & well for sup- other, formed part of the Persian Empire. Its houses, plying the house with water; and the windows of the as well as its inhabitants, present features of the Turkish, principal apartments look into the court, several doors Persian, Syriac, and Arabian countries: and we shall do leading from the court to the rooms: in all these cases well to consider rather minutely the nature of the dwellings. there is one door leading exclusively to the women's apart- Aleppo is governed by a bashaw or officer, and the resiments. The apartment in which strangers are received dence of this officer, as well as of the other principal officers is generally on the ground floor, with a grated or latticed of state, are called Seraglios, (a Persian word for a palace or window looking into the court. This reception-room has great house.) These seraglios are huge piles of building, generally a fountain in the middle, and is paved with black with nothing like architectural grace about them. The and white marble. Along two sides of the room runs a entrance is through a large court; and the gate is arched raised platform covered with mats and carpets, and visitors and decorated with marble. Persons of rank pass on horseback generally take off their shoes before they step upon this. directly to the foot of the grand staircase. The state apartThe mode in which persons seat themselves in such ments are of an oblong form, with. lofty flat ceilings, and countries will assist us in explaining many of the customs are well lighted by a row of large windows. The walls and mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. The matted or carpetted ceilings are adorned with flowers, fruit, and fanciful ornafloor is frequently the only seat, and if shoes, soiled with ments, painted, gilt and varnished: and verses from the the dust of the streets, were to tread on this matting, the Koran are seldom omitted as part of the decoration. Each garments would certainly be disfigured by it: hence a sense state apartment has an elevated platform on each side of cleanliness, as well as certain rites connected with reli- constituting a divan, where distinguished visitors are gion, lead the inhabitants to take off their shoes previous to invited to seat theniselves. The divan is covered with stepping upon the raised platform. There are, however, mattresses, over which is thrown a covering of cloth; and frequently mattrasses and cushions, stuffed with cotton and oblong cushions, stuffed with cotton and faced with silk or covered with cloth or silk, ranged' round the sides of the velvet, are ranged round next the wall:—the corners of
these divans are considered as the places of honour. The The outer room of the hummam or bagnio is called the lower and central part of the apartment is occupied by pages burany, and is large, lofty, covered with a dome, and paved and others; indeed all visitors, except those of rank, are with marble. It has windows towards the street, but is to remain on the central division of the rooin, and must lighted chiefly by the lantern of the dome. A broad stone 110t presume to step on the divan,
platform, or mustaby, about four feet high, is built close to the Tlie apartments of the principal officers are fitted up on wall on each side, which being spread with mats and carthe saine plan, but with less splendour: the divans in their pets, forms a divan on which the bathers may undress and rooms being made to serve as beds at night, by employing repose. A large marble fountain in the middle serves both additional mattrasses and coverlids.
as an ornament, and for rinsing the bagnio linen, which is The women's apartments are always separated from the afterwards hung to dry on lines stretched above. The main part of the building, and consist of several suites of bathers, as well as the servants, walk in this outer chamber tooms, ranged round an open court. This court contains in slippers, for the stoves having but small intluence there, å shrubbery, a basin with a fountain, arbours of slight lat- the wet pavement is cold to the naked feet. ticed frames, and other arrangements for producing a cool From the burany a door opens into a narrow passage, place of retreat from the heat incident to the climate. leading to the wastany, or middle chamber, which has a There are also two open apartments, called the divan, and mustaby, or raised platform, for the accommodation of such the kaah, which are a sort of open reception rooms, where as may choose to sit there, and is furnished with several the different members of a family may congregate. These round or oblong stone basins, about a foot and a half in diaare particularly delightful, from the means taken,-such meter, into each of which two pipes open with brass cocks, ås fountains, &c.,—to make them cool. The private apart- the one conveying hot, the other cold water. These are ments of the females are ranged round the court, with called juru, and are fixed to the wall two feet from the pavewindows looking into the court, to the exclusion of any inent. There are also brazen bowls for laving out the water. other. The sleeping rooms are usually on the ground floor, The thermometer in the burany is about 64. Fahr.;-in the and the visiting, or reception rooms are above them. passage 75%--and in the wastany, or middle chamber, 90°.
Such are the general modes of construction in the man- From the middle chamber, a door opens immediately into sions of the bashaws, agas, effendis, and officers of govern- the inner chamber, or juany, which is much larger than the ment, at Aleppo.
wustany, and heated to about 100°. It has no mustaby, or The houses of the merchants seldom have a court in platform, so that the bathers sit or recline on the pavement, front, the entrance being immediately from the street, by a which towards the centre is excessively hot. The middle large door. The outer apartments are small, and furnished and inner rooms are less lofty than the outer one, and are in a plain but nent manner. They serve only for the recep- covered with small cupolas, from which they receive a dull tion of familiar visitors in the morning, or at supper: for light, by means of a few round apertures, glazed with a thick on extraordinary occasions, the harems, or female apart- coloured glass. At each comer of the juany is a small open ments, are made use of, which, in point of elegance, often recess, in one of which there is a basin
about four feet deep, rival those of the seraglios, and in the richness of the fur- called the murtas, serving occasionally for a temperate bath. niture sometimes excel them.
The bagnios are heated by stoves underneath, and the ordiThe houses of the Turks of middle rank have seldom
nary temperature is about 100°. more than one court; but many of them have a kaah, and It must be borne in mind, that the mode of bathing all have a divan, with a little garden and fountain before adopted in these countries is altogether different from that it. Their habitations are thus airy, and kept very neat. employed in England. There is no plunging into a large From this rank, down to the lowest order of Turks, there body of water, and in a few minutes emerging from it. The are houses of various degrees of comfort; but they have bather, first, in the onter room, throws off his usual dress, nearly all something which they can call a divan, and a few and puts on a slight bathing dress. He then passes into the bushes or shrubs by way of garden :---their best room is middle room, and gets gradually warmed by its temperature. rudely painted, and decorated with such ornaments as they From thence he passes into the inner or bath room, which can procure.
is heated so highly that in a fow minutes he is in a profuse The houses of the Christians of the upper class consist perspiration. He then lies down on the warm marble pavegenerally of a central court surrounded by apartments, inent, and is rubbed all over by an attendant, with a kind The entrance to these houses is scarcely to be distinguished of perfumed soap; after which he is well drenched by bowls from those of the Turks; and the interior is fitted up with of warni clean water, and rubbed with dry towels. The a good deal of taste and neatness.
bathing being thus completed, he passes into tlie middle The Jews, both European and native, have houses built room, puts on his slippers, wraps hinself completely in a much on the same fashion as the other inhabitants of the city; | blanket, and then smokes a cigar, drinks coffee, and conand in some instances their dwellings display no little mag- verses with his friends or neighbours:-indeed, this middle nificence within. The poorer classes of Jews, however, room is a general place of rendezvous for friends, who often are worse lodged than the poor of the other religious com- go to the hath as inuch to meet one another as for the plenmunities.
sure of bathing. This is particularly the case with females: The roofs of nearly all the better kinds of houses are ílat, by the custonis of the country they are so much innured, and plastered with a composition of mortar, tar, ashes, and that they are glad of the relief from constraint afforded by sand, which in time becomes very hard; but, when not the bath; and it is not unusual for them to take sweetmeats, laid on at the proper season, the terrace is apt to crack in fruits, spices, &c., to regale themselves and friends in the the winter. These fat roofs or terraces are separated by middle chamber, after having taken the bath. Lady M. W. parapet walls, and most of the natives sleep on them in Montagu tells us that this is then a famous place for gossip.
The Europeans who live contiguous have doors When the bathers have remained as long as they please in of communication, and by means of the terraces on their the middle room, they proceed to the outer room, resume own houses and those on the bazaars, can make a large cir- | their dresses, and leave the place. There are some baths for cuit without descending into the street. The native inhabit- men, and others for women; and a third class devoted to ants, however, do not throw open a whole line of terraces women in the forenoon, and men in the afternoon; the in this way; but frequently heighten the wall of division bathers being attended by servants of their own sex. by means of a screen. We will avail ourselves of the present opportunity for
3. HOUSES OF PERSIA AND ARABIA. speaking of a part of the domestic arrangement which in The most general characteristics of the houses of the warm climates has a considerable influence on the con- wealthier classes in Persia have been the same from age to struction of a town, as well as upon the manners of the in- age, and the accounts of different travellers pretty well habitants, we mean the custom of bathing. Not only does agree on the subject. Generally speaking, such houses are a sultry climate occasion a necessity for a frequent use of built in the middle of a fine garden, and present little or the bath, but the Mohammedan religion requires that ablu- none of their beauty to the street ; for there is little tions should be made at certain hours of the day. Most else to be seen but a dead wall, with a great gate in the of the large mansions in Persia, Turkey, Syria, Egypt, middle of it, and perhaps a screen or wall within the gate, Barbary, &c., have baths within them; but the general to prevent passers-by from seeing the mansion,-great pricustom is, to attend public baths, a large number of which vacy being sought for in this respect. It is not often that are to be found in most of their cities. These baths or the Persian mansions have more than one story,-indeed, in bagnios being pretty nearly the same everywhere, we will most warm climates, the houses are more remarkable for take those of Aleppo as a general representative of all, and length and depth than for height. In the portion of the will avail ourselves of Dr, Russell's account of them, house nearest the entrance gate is generally a little piazza
or open room, where the general business of the inha- tion of the air. All the staircases are narrow, dark, and bitant is transacted. Beyond this piazza is a large hall, steep. The rooms are well-proportioned, large, and lofty, and from twelve to twenty feet high, which is the place of meet- have, besides the large windows and balconies, a second row ing, on the occasion of great entertainments, &c. On the of smaller windows. The beauty of the houses may be hinder side of the house is often another piazza, with a considered as the remains of the ancient splendour of Mecca, fount .in playing in front of it, beyond which shady walks Every inhabitant has an interest in adorning his dwelling, are frequently seen. At each corner of the large hall is a in order to induce the hadgi, or pilgrims, to lodge with parlour, or dwelling room, between which are small open him during their sojourn at Mecca, for this is one of the square courts, with entrances from the great hall: the object principal sources of wealth to the inhabitants, on account of of this and similar arrangements seems to be, that in a climate the high terms demanded and paid. so sultry as that of Persia, it is desirable to have as many Another town in Arabia of which we may briefly speak open doors as possible, to admit air into the central hall: is Mocha, a name rendered familiar to us by the excellent there is often a fountain playing in the middle of the hall. coffee brought from its neighbourhood. In this town the
The walls of the houses are built sometimes of burned principal buildings, such as the residences of the govern bricks, and sometimes of bricks dried in the sun. The ment officers and principal inhabitants, have no pretensions, wails are of considerable thickness, and the roof of the great externally, to architectural elegance, but still are not deroid hali is arched, and some feet higher than the smaller, rooms of beauty, from their turretted tops and fantastic ornanear it. The roofs of the buildings on every side of the hall ments in white stucco. The windows are in general small, are flat, and have stairs leading up to them. These flat roofs stuck into the wall in an irregular manner, closed with form one of the most distinguishing features of Asiatic dwell- | lattices, and sometimes opening into a wooden, carved-work ings. Nothing can exceed the beauty of the sky at those balcony. In the upper apartments there is generally a hours of the evening when the sun has withdrawn his scorch- range of circular windows, above the others, filled, instead ing rays. It is at such a time that the Persian, taking up of glass, with a thin layer of a peculiar transparent stone, a mattrass to the roof, there luxuriates in the indolent en- which is found in veins in a mountain near Sanaa. Vone joyment of the open air:-often, indeed, he passes the night of these can be opened, and only a few of the lower ones,there, except at certain seasons, when, in consequence of a consequence of which is that a thorough current of fresh the powerful evaporation during the day, a piercing cold air is rare in these houses, yet the people who inhabit is felt at night.
them do not appear to be oppressed by the heat, although The kitchens, and other domestic offices of the house, are it is insupportable to European visitors. The floors as wall generally at some distance to the right or left, and the hall as the roofs of the larger houses are made of chungm, which is the medium of communication between all of them. is sustained by beams with pieces of plank or-thin slips of Sometimes the rooms have chimneys, but at other times wood, laid across and close to each other. As a carpenter's there is an arrangement of a charcoal fire thus managed :- level is seldom used in their buildings, the floors are geneA hole, four or five feet in diameter, and one or two deep, is rally very uneven; but where couches and cushions are sunk in the floor of the room, and in this is kindled a char- used instead of chairs and tables, this is not felt to be much coal fire. The hole is covered over with a thick board, and inconvenience. The internal construction of the houses is this again is covered with a carpet, so that persons by sitting generally bad: the passages are long and narrow, and the round in a circle, and placing their feet under the carpet, staircases so steep that it is frequently difficult to mount can keep themselves warm in cold weather. Air is admitted them. Very little time is used in the construction of any to the fire, and smoke is conducted from it, by pipes laid of these buildings: constant care is therefore necessary to beneath the floor. The floors of the rooms are either paved, prevent the introduction of moisture. With caution, the or covered with a hard cement, on which a coarse cloth is houses last many years, but if neglected, they soon become laid, and over that a carpet. The walls of some of the rooms a heap of rubbishi, for the sun-dried bricks then resun are lined with fine tile a part of the way up; and are their original form of mud. painted above.
The streets and bazaars of Mocha present a livek a. Such are the general characters of the houses in that wide pearance, from the commingling of many different classes expanse of country included under the general name of and ranks of people. Lord Valentia says:-“ Under the Persia. But it must be here understood, that these remarks coarse awnings of its narrow bazaars you meet the pre!!. apply chiefly to the large towns; for in the wide and uncul- dressed merchants in robes of woollen cloth, and from above tivated wastes which cover so large a portion of the Persian the folds of the snow-white turban you see a red woolien empire, the same kind of rude and temporary tents are ob- cap, with a tassel of purple silk. At every step you meet servable as are employed by the roving Arabs. In a country the black, the half-naked Abyssinian, straight as the young like England, we happily do not know what it is to have our areca, with a nose sufficiently prominent to give expression large towns separated from each other by sandy wastes, to his features, and having his curled woolly hair dyed with where neither man nor beast can find food and water without a reddish yellow,—the foppery of his country. Then there great difficulty :--the arrangements of a manufacturing is the stout Arab porter, in his coarse brown garment, bow. town and those of an agricultural village are certainly ing under a heavy load of dates, the matting all oozing, and sufficiently distinct; but still, a roving population, whó, clammy with the luscious burden. Lastly, you have the when they have gathered all the herbage and fruits at one Bedouin, with the hue of the descrt on his cheek, the part of the country, strike their tents, and proceed in a body sinewy limb, the eye dark and fiery. He hath a small tur, to another locality, is unknown to us, however much it ban, a close-bodied vest, a coarse saslı, all of dull colours; prevails in Persia.
the arm, the leg, are bare ; the brown bosom, open to the These remarks apply also to Arabia. We have, however, sun and wind; sandals on his feet; a broad, straight, twu. nothing to say here of the roving tribes, but shall briefly edged sword in his hand; a long and ready poniard in his speak of the populous towns. The city of Mecca consists girdle. For the cold night wind he has a cloak of goat's of streets arranged with tolerable regularity, and there is hair, or black or white, or made in long broad stripes of lvila something more pleasing in the fronts of the houses than colours. He walks erect, and moves directly to his front, usually observed in Oriental towns. The houses have giving place to none.
Then there are the cook-shops generally two rows of windows, with balconies covered with with their hot cakes of bread, and their large coppers, with: blinds. There are even several large windows, quite open, portions of meat and fowls, swimming in ghee, and ready as in Europe, but the greater number are covered with a for the traveller. And a step farther the caravanserais and curtain, like a Venetian blind, made of palm-leaves: these coffee-houses, with groups of townsmen and traders, ie blinds are extremely light, and screen the apartments from clining on couches of tlie date-leaf, smoking their small the sun, without interrupting the passage of the air : they hookahıs
, sipping their kishu, and perpetually stroking their fold up at pleasure at the upper part.
The houses are long beards." There are other towns in Arabia, such as solidly built with stone, and are three, four, and even more Medina, and Aden, once a very important port at the stories in height. The fronts are ornamented with bases, southern entrance into the Red Sea. But neither of these mouldings, and paintings, which give them a very graceful need call for particular notice here: Medina presents many: appearance. It is very rare to find a door that has not a features similar to Mecca, and Aden to Mocha. base, with steps and small seats on both sides. The blinds of the balconies are not very close, and holes are cut in dif
4. HOUSES OF INDIA AND CHINA.
1 ferent parts of them. The roofs of the houses form terraces, surrounded with a wall about seven feet high, open at cer
We will travel eastward, and notice the recent seat of war, tain spaces which are occupied by a railing of red and white
Afghanistan. The houses of the higher classes in Afghan
istan are described with some minuteness by the lui. þricks, placed symmetrically, leaving holes for the circula- | Mountstuart Elphinstone, in his Account of the kingdom v
Caubul. The class of inhabitants whose dwellings he thus ornaments of the rooms of the great, are carpets and felts, portrays, includes all the Douranee chiefs and heads of which serve them in place of all other furniture. Persian tribes, with the Persians and Tanjiks, who hold offices carpets are too well known in England to require any desabout the king. “These residences,” says our author, “are cription, but there is a kind made in Heraut which excels all enclosed by high walls, and contain (besides stables, all others I ever saw; they are made of wool, but so fine and lodging for servants, &c.,) three or four different courts, glossy, and dyed with such brilliant colours, that they generally laid out in gardens, with ponds and fountains. appear to be of silk; carpets of highly wrought shawl are One side of each court is occupied by a building, comprising also used; but this piece of magnificence must be very rarely various small apartments in two or three stories, and some used from the enormous expense*. large halls, which occupy the middle of the building for its “There are felts for sitting on, spread close to the wall whole height. The halls are supported by tall wooden all round the room, except where the entrance is, which, in pillars and Moorish arches, carved, ornamented, and painted the halls, is always at one end. They are brownish-grey, like the rest of the hall. The upper rooms open on the halls with patterns of Howers in dim colours; that at the top of by galleries which run along halfway up the wall, and are the room is broader than the others, which are about three set off with pillars and arches. The halls, being only sepa- feet and a half or four feet broad.' On the upper felt are rated by pillars and sashes of open wood-work, can always smaller carpets of embroidered silk or velvet, with cushions be thrown into one by removing the sashes. The back of of velvet for distinguished visitors.” the innermost one is a solid wall, in which is the fire-place. The peninsula of India, like most countries which have The upper part of this wall is ornamented with false arches, had many conquerors, presents a great diversity of dwellings, which look like a continuation of the galleries, and which, not only in splendour and costliness, but also in style. As, as well as the real arches, are filled up on great occasions however, the Hindoos are the people who are most pecuwith paintings in oil, looking-glasses, and other ornaments. liarly connected with that country, we will give a brief There are smaller rooms along the other sides of the court- sketch of the dwellings of Hindoos of rank. Benares preyards; and among them are comfortable apartments for the sents the most marked appearance of Hindoo origin: in this retirement of the master of the house, one of which, at least, city the amiable Bishop Heber visited a house which he has is fitted up with glass windows for cold weather. There are described. It belonged to two minors, the sons of an opulent fire-places in many of these different apartments. The walls citizen. It was a building of striking appearance, and had and pillars are ornamented with flowers in various patterns, a large vacant area before the door. The house was very painted in distemper, or in oil, on a white ground, composed irregular, and built round a small court, two sides of which of a sort of whitewash, mixed with shining particles, which were taken up by the dwelling-house, and the others by is called seem gil, or silver earth. The doors are of carved the offices. It was four lofty stories in height, with a tower wood, and, in winter, are covered with curtains of velvet, over the gate, of one story more. The front had small winembroidered cloth, and brocade. In all the rooms, at á dows of various forms, some of them projecting on brackets, height which is easily within reach, are arched recesses in and beautifully carved, and a great part of the wall itself was the walls, which are painted very richly, and, by a strange covered with carved patterns of sprigs, leaves, and flowers, deprevity of taste, are thought to be embellished by glass like an old-fashioned paper. The whole was of stone, but bottles of various coloured pickles and preserves. The poor painted a deep red. The general effect of the house was also have these recesses, which they ornament with China | very much like that of some of the palaces at Venice, as cups, and in which they store their fruits for winter con- represented in Canaletti's views. There was an entrancesumption: the curtains in their houses are of quilted chinta, gateway, with a groined arch of rich carving, and on each or of canvas, painted with birds, beasts, flowers, &c., in oil. side was a deep, richly-carved recess, like a shrine, in which
The pictures in the houses of the rich are mostly, if not were idols, with lamps before them,—the household gods of entirely, done in Persia: the figures are old Persian kings the family. The inner court was covered with plantuins and warriors, young men and women drinking together, or scenes from some of the Persian poems. The principal ! and this was said to be far below its value,
* The price demanded for a shawl-carpet of very large size was 10 0001 ,
and inse-trees, with a raised and ornamented well in its are a sort of barbarous race inhabiting some remote corner centre: on the left hand a narrow and steep flight of stone of the earth. The houses of the wealthy in China bear steps led to the first floor. On this floor were several rooms, a considerable resemblance to those which have been not very large, but beautifully carved, the principal one, brought to light at Pompeii. They consist, generally which occupied the first floor of the gateway, having an speaking, of a ground floor, containing several apartments
, arcade round it. The centre, about fifteen feet square, was which are lighted by windows looking into a central court. raised and covered with a carpet. The arcade round was The principal apartment is near the entrance, and is devoted flagged with stones, and was so contrived that on a very to the reception of visitors, &c. The inner apartments are short notice four streams of water, one in the centre of each separated from each other by doorways covered with silk side, descended from the roof like a permanent shower-bath, hangings. The houses are frequently entered by a triple and fell into stone basins, sunk beneath the floor, and gateway, consisting of a large folding door in the middle, covered with a sort of open fretwork, also of stone. “These and a smaller one on each side: the large entrance is for rooms,” says Bishop Heber, “were hung with a good many distinguished visitors, and the smaller for those of humbler English prints, of the common paltry description which was rank. It is not unusual to see cylindrical lanterns hung at fashionable twenty years ago, such as Sterne and poor the sides of the gate, on which the name and title of the Maria, (the boys supposed this to be a doctor feeling a lady's inhabitant are written, so as to be read by night as well as pulse,) the Sorrows of Werter, &c., together with a daub of by day. In the best houses, there are seldom any stain, the present Emperor of Delhi, and several portraits in oil of except a few at the entrance. The foundations of the a much better kind, of the father of these boys, some of his houses are of extremely solid stone-work, not unfrequently powerful nutive friends and employers, and of a very beau- of granite. The walls are of blue brick, and frequently tiful woman, of European complexion, but in an Eisstern have an artificial surface laid on them. Stucco-work of dress, of whom the boys knew nothing, or would say considerable delicacy, representing animals, flowers, fruit, nothing more, than that the picture was painted for their | &c., is frequently seen, and is executed at a low priee. father hy Hall-jee of Patna. "I did not indeed repeat the Inner partition walls are often divided into compartments question, because I knew the reluctance with which all which are filled with a kind of fret-work of porcelain. Eastern nations speak of their women, but it certainly had | The roof is covered with tiles, whose tranverse section the appearance of a portrait, and, as well as the old Baboo's approaches to a semicircle : they are ranged along with picture, would have been called a creditable painting in their concave side uppermost, to serve as channels for the inost gentlemen's houses in England."
rain: other tiles are then laid with their concave side downThe houses of the Mohaminedan inhabitants of India wards, so as to hide the joinings of the tiles ; it is supposed do not differ in any marked degree from those of Persia or that this plan was derived from the use of split bamboos, Turkey: the morals, the religion, and the general social as is customary among the Malays. arrangements, being nearly the same. In the southern Sir G. Staunton describes the house of a mandarin eye provinces of India, such as Mysore, &c., the houses are of which may be taken as a representative of the more very large dimensions, inclosing numerous courts, sur- costly dwellings. The whole inclosure of the dwelling was rounded by buildings. There is also a very remarkable in the form of a parallelogram, and surrounded by a high class of erections to be seen in the hilly districts towards the brick wall, the outside of which exhibited a plain blank surwestern shore of the peninsula : these are called hill-forts. face, except near one of its angles, where the gateway On the very summit of a hill are often built, not only the opened into a narrow street, little promising the handsome fortification necessary for the defence of a place, but nume- structure withinside. The wall in its whole length suprous residences both for the governors and the governed. ported the upper ridge of roof, whose lower edges resting There are but few fortified places in the world more for- upon an interior wall parallel to the other, formed a long midable, in a military point of view, than these forts; range of buildings divided into apartments for servants and because not only are the walls and general defensive offices. The rest of the inclosure was subdivided into sevearrangements of a very complete kind, but the hill on which ral quadrangular courts of different sizes. In each quadthey are situated is often so precipitous, that it is with the rangle were buildings upon platforms of granite, and surutmost difficulty the ascent to them is accomplished. rounded by a colonnade. The columns were of wood, nearly
The countries to the south-east of India, such as the Bir- sixteen feet in height, and as many inches in diameter at man Empire, Siam, Malaya, &c., do not display such speci- the lower end, decreasing to the upper extremity about onemens of elegant buildings as are to be found in India, and sixth, They had neither capital nor base, aceording to the therefore need not occupy much of our attention. The strict meaning of these terms in Grecian architecture, nor nature of the houses, in and near the Birman Empire, any divisions of that part called the entablature, it being may be judged of from the following remarks of Symes, in plain up to the cornice ; at the lower end they were let into his Embassy to Ava :-“ The streets of Pegu are spacious, hollows cut into stones for their reception, and which formed as are those of all the Birman towns that I have seen. The a circular ring round each somewhat in the Tuscan manner. new town is well paved with brick, which the ruins of the Between the columns, for about one-fourth the length of the old plentifully supply; and on each side of the way there is shaft from the cornice downwards, was carved and orna a drain to carry off the water. The houses of the meanest mented wood-work, which might be termed the entablature, peasants of Pegu, and throughout the Birman empire, and was of a different colour from the columns, which were possess manifest advantages over Indian dwellings, hy being universally red. This colonnade served to support that part raised from the ground either on wooden posts or bamboos. of the roof which projected beyond the wall-plate in a curve, according to the size of the building. The habitationis of turning up at the angles. By means of these roofed colon the higher ranks are usually elevated six or eight feet, and naules, every part of these extensive buildings might be those of the humbler classes, three or four. There are no visited under cover. The number of pillars throughout the brick buildings either in Pegu or Rangoon, except sneh as whole was not fewer than six hundred. belong to the king, or are dedicated to the divinity Gaudma; Annexed to the principal apartinent was an elevated buildhvis majesty having prohibited the use of brick or stone in inz, intended for the purposes of a private theatre and conprivate buildings. The houses, therefore, are all made of cert room, with retiring apartments behind, and a gallery matting, or of sheathing-boards, supported on bamboos or for spectators round it. None of the buildings were above posts; but from their being composed of such combustible one story high, except that which composed the ladies' materials the inhabitants are under continual dread of fire, apartment during the residence of the owner: it was situated against which they take every precaution. The roofs are in the inmost quadrangle. The front consisted of one long lightly covered, and at each door stands a long bamboo, and lofty hall, with windows of Chinese paper, through with an iron look at the end, to pull down the thatch. which no objects could be distinguished on the other side. There is also another pole, with a grating of iron at the At the back of this hall was a gallery, at a height of about extremity, about three feet square, to suppress flame by ten feet, which led to several small rooms, lighted only from pressure. Almost every house has earthen pots, filled with the hall
. These inner windows were of silk gauze, stretched water, on the roof; and a particular class of people, whose on frames of wood, and worked by the needle with repres business it is to extinguish fires, perambulate the streets sentations of flowers, fruit, birds, and insects; others were during the night."
painted in water-colours. This apartment was fitted up in The eastern part of Asia is occupied by that remarkable a neater style, though upon a smaller scale, than most of the people, the Chinese, a people who seem to pride themselves others. The whole of this part of the building was caleuin being different in manners, in dress, in language, in lated for private apartments. In one of the outer quadmanufactures, from every other; who think that their rangles was a basin or pond of water, in the midst of which country is the centre of civilization, and that the Europeans was built a stone room, exactly in the shape of one of the