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tle of Armageddon immediately before the Millennium, and the battle of Gog and Magog im. mediately after it ; therefore, the Gog and Magogof Ezekiel, must refer to one or other of these. But there are other circumstances in the relation, which effectually prevent the application of it to the battle of Armageddon; and therefore the Gog and Magog of Ezekiel, and of St. John, must be the same.

Firft, The prophet represents the Jews in pofsession of their land previous to the invasion of Gog; but they only take possession by the battle of Armageddon, and were not in poffeffion before it was fought.

Secondly, He represents them as dwelling at ease, not dreading an enemy, nor prepared for an attack

" And thou shalt fay, I will go up “ to the land of unwalled villages ; I will

will go to " them that are at rest, that dwell safely, all of “ them dwelling without walls, and having neither bars nor gates," Ezek, xxxviii. 11. This can by no means apply to Armageddon, for at that time they are represented as being aware of the preparation of their enemies ; yea, as being trained up and employed as the inftruments in God's hand, to subdue them.

Thirdly, He represents them as wealthy, posfessed of cattle and goods in abundance. “turn their hand upon the people which have



66 To

gotten cattle and goods, that dwell in the “ midst of the land, haft thou gathered thy com

pany to take a prey? to carry away filver and

gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take “ a great spoil, Ezek. xxxviii. 12, 19. All this supposes them to have been long in poffeffion of their own land. Both the sacred and the prophane historians shew, that wealth is not the attainment of an infant state; it is a bleffing acquired by a course of years. This representation, therefore, cannot' apply to the battle of Armageddon.

Fourthly, The prophet represents the Jews on the defence in the invasion of Gog, and their enemies on the offensive. This is obvious from the whole strain of the narrative; but in the battle of Armageddon, the enemies of the church are on the defence, (see vial 6.) and the Jews on the offenfive, (see Rev. xix. 11.); therefore, the Gog of Ezekiel, and the battle of Armaged. don cannot relate to the same event.

But all these circumstances fitly apply to the Gog and Magog of St. John. The time of their invasion is at the end of the Millennium, when the Jews have been a thousand years in pofseflion of their native land. During all that period, universal peace prevails, and therefore they dread no enemy ;-outward prosperity abounds, and therefore they have cattle and goods ; love and communion fubfift betwixt them and the 3 M


Gentile church, and therefore they are not difposed to make any hoftile attack.

Bishop Newton allows, that the prophecy of Ezekiel and this of St. John, remain yet to be accomplished, and cannot be absolutely certain, that they may not both relate to the same event, but thinks it more probable that they relate to different events'. I Thall just glance at his reafons, “ The one is expected to take effect be“ fore, but the other will not take effect till af. « ter the Millennium.” To this a sufficient answer has been given in the observations already made, on the time of Gog's appearance.

- Gog and Magog are said expressly to come “ from the north quarters and the north parts ; “ but in St. John, they come from the four quar

ters, or corners of the earth. Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel, bend their forces against the Jews resettled in their native land; but in St.

John, they march up against the saints, and “ church of God in general."

These circumstances do not contradict but illuf. trate each other. Some of those which the Prophet had omitted, the Apostle mentions; and others which the Prophet had mentioned, the Apostle omits. May we not suppose, that the leader of this vast army comes from the north quarters, and yet that multitudes of a similar fpi


(1) Newton's Diff. on Prophecies.

rit join his standard from the four corners of the earth?. In fact, the countries from which his followers come, according to the Prophet, are situate with respect to Judea to the four quarters of the earth. Is it not reasonable to expect, that so immense an army shall lay waste an extensive territory, and of course harrass the church in many places, and yet their chief design may be against, and their final overthrow may take place in the land of Judea ? So far is the Apostle from contradicting the relation of the Prophet in this respect, that he expressly mentions their compassing about the beloved city, that is, the Jewish church. The learned prelate proceeds: “ Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel, are with very

good reason supposed to be the Turks, but the “ Turks are the authors of the second woe, and “-the second woe is passed before the third woe, “ and the third woe long precedes the time here “ treated of.” This argument is certainly conclufive against the existence of the Ottoman empire, at the period in which St. John represents Gog and Magog compassing about the beloved city. But the very good reasons which induce him to suppose Gog and Magog in Ezekiel, to represent the Turks, I see not.

The thirty-third chapter of Isaiah throughout, refers to this invasion of Gog. My reasons for this opinion are the following, of which the reader may judge: 1. It cannot apply to Sennacherib's invasion in a strict and literal sense ; because, verses 5, 6. contain expreffions too lofty to suit Hezekiah's government, but they are frictly true of Christ's. Again, in verses 21, 22, 23, 24. we have the language in which the Prophets uniformly describe the happiness of the latter' times; but what connection can be traced betwixt the destruction of Sennacherib's army, and the glory of the Millennium? Whereas the destruction of Gog's army and the Millennium, are closely connected.--2. The conne&tion of this with the preceding chapter, lead me to apply it to Gog. The former chapter concluded with an account of the Millennium ; this describes an invasion of Judea pofterior to it, precisely agreeing to the account in the Apocalypse, that when the thousand years are expired, Gog leads his army against the beloved city.-3. All the cir. cumstances agree to Gog's invasion. This is a fudden attack with the sword, verfes I. and 8. compared with Ezek.xxxviii. 9.15, 16. and Rev.xx.8. The invasion is undertaken to gather fpoil from the peaceable habitations of the church. Compare ver. 1. with Ezek. xxxviï. 11, 12. Yet the attempt shall end in making the invaders a fpoil to the people of God, ver. 1.4. with Ezek.xxxix. 10. God's hand is visible in their destruction, and their punishment is partly by fire, ver. 3. -10, 11, 12. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. and Rev. xx. g.



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