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fides, no man is obliged to do himself a mischief, to do another no kindness. Another pretends he is drawn by his business or way of life, to taverns and places of entertainment. But a man must never have been drunk, nor ever seen another drunk, toimagine that strong liquor will help him in driving bargains. On the contrary, every body knows, that one is never so likely to be imposed on as when he is in liquor. Nor is the pretence of drinking to drive away care, to pafs the time, or to cheer the spirits, more worthy of a rational creature. If, by the force of strong liquor, a man's cares may be mechanically banished, and his conscience lulled asleep for a time; he can only expect them to break loose upon him afterwards with the greater fury. He who artificially raises his spirits by drinking, will find them fink and flag in proportion. And then they must be raised again; and so on, till at last he has no spirits to raise. For understanding, and fortune, and virtue, and health, all fall before this dreadful destroyer. As for drinking to pass the time, instead of an excuse, it is an aggravation. It is criminal enough to waste expence and health, without lavishing precious times besides.

Nor is the pretence of being odious among one's neighbours, and being looked upon as a precise fellow, for living temperately, any better than the others. Alas! we are not hereafter to stand or fall by the opinion of our neighbours. Besides, we ourselves in many cases Mew a neglect of the opinion of mankind; and do not cross our inclinations to gain it. And if in one instance, why not in another ? We may be sure of the favourable opinion of the fober part of our acquaintance by keeping on the right side ; the approbation of one of whom is preferable to that of a thousand drunkards.

Of all kinds of intemperance, the modern times have produced one of the most fatal and unheard of, which like a plague over-runs and lays waste both town and country, sweeping the lower part of the people, who indulge in it, by thousands to the grave. The unhappy invention I mean, and which seems by its mischievous effects to claim Stan himseif for its author, is the drinking of fermented spirituous liquors. This is no place


for setting forth the destructive effects of that most shocking species of debauchery. That has been the subject of a parliamentary inquiry. And it is to be hoped, that the accounts laid before that august body, which were tragical enough to melt a heart of rock, will be the cause of producing an effectual remedy for that ruinous national evil.

The best human means I know of, for conquering a habit of drinking, are to avoid temptation, to accustom one's self by degrees to lessen the quantity, and lower the strength of the liquor by a more and more copious dilution with water.

The natural desire of the two sexes was placed in us for the support of the species. It is not therefore to be eradicated; but only brought under proper regulations, so as the end may the best be answered. That the union of one man and one woman for life, was the original design, is evident from the near equality between the numbers of the two sexes. For one man therefore to break loose upon the other sex, and appropriate to himself a plurality, is evidently against the order of nature, and inconsistent with the good of society, in which every individual is to enjoy all his natural rights and privileges, and all monopolies are unjust. That the marriage engagement ought to be sacred and indissoluble bút by death, is plain from considering the various bad effects of its being precarious, as alienating the affections of the two parties for one another, and for their common children, and thereby defeating one main end of their coming together, viz. to be mutual helps and supports to one another under the various distresses of life ; encouraging inconstancy and an endless desire of variety; and exposing one of the sexes to the unhappiness of a llavish dependence. That all commerce of the sexes, where a due care is not had for the off-spring, is vicious, is evident from conlidering, that thereby the very design of nature is frustrated. That invading the bed of our neighbour is highly injurious, is plain, because it is a breach of the most solemn engagements, and most facred vows, without which there could be no marriage. That all commerce of the sexes, except in lawful marriage, is unjustifiable, is certain, in that it tends to the discouragement of that most wise and excellent institution. And that it is the indispensable duty of every man and woman to enter into that state, excepting in the cale of unsurmountable conftitutional or prudential objections, is as plain, as that it is the duty of every man and woman to eat and drink. For it is as certainly the design of Providence, that the species be kept up, as that the life of individuals be preserved by nourishment. And what is the duty of one is the duty of all, unless in the case of insuperable obstacles.


The indulgence of this appetite to excess is as clearly unjustifiable as that of any other. The effccts of every undue sensual indulgence are finking and debafing the mind, misleading it from the sublime views, and nuble pursuits, for which it was created, and habituating it to disobedience and misrule; which is directly contrary to the intention of a state of discipline. Whoever gives himself up to the uncontrouled dominion of passion or appetite, fells himself an unredeemable flave to the most rigorous, and most despicable of tyrants. And it is only going on farther and farther in luch bafe indulgences, and at last, no gratification whatever of the defire will be sufficient. Yet, there is no state in life, in which abstinence at times, from sensual gratifications of every kind, is not indispensably necessary. Every reader's cominon sense will convince him of the truth of this, and particularly with respect to the subject we are now upon. Though marriage is the natural way of gratifying the mutual desires of the sexes, every body knows, that a continued indulgence is uiterly incompatible with the marriage state. Which thews plainly, that the due regulation and restraint of every paflion and appetite, is the scheme of nature, and that unbounded excess is contrary to nature. And yet, how strange is it to consider the poor and superficial fallacies, which mankind think suliicient to satisfy themselves with, rather than give up their favourite vices and follies? What can be more contemptible than the common plea for all excessive and irregular indugences, particularly the criminal commerce of the fexes ; That

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we are formed with natural inclinations, defires, and powers ; and why should we not act according to the bent of our nature ?

To pursue the ends of nature, according to the order of nature, is so far from being criminal, that it is virtue. But excess and irregularity are directly contrary to nature's views. This is seen by every man, in every case where pallion and appetite do not blind him. We have a natural appetite, for example, to food. How comes it then, that we do not as often over-gorge our itomachs with plain bread as with dainties? The one would be as irregular and vicious as the other. Yet we should see a strange absurdity in the former, while we can excuse ourselves in the latter. If we are formed with a natural appetite for food, why do we make such a difference in the indulgence of our appetite in delicacies, from plain food ? The truth is, that excess of all kinds is indefenfible, and unnatural. If it were natural, we should be as apt to eat too much bread, as too much pasty. It is the deplorable weakness of our nature, that we yield to appetite and passion, till they became too powerful for us, and lead us captive in spite of ourselves. While we pretend, we only follow nature, we are indulging a false and vitiated taste. And in no indulgence is there more shameful excess committed, nor greater deviations from the intention of nature, than in that which is the subject of this paragraph. Were the above apology for excess of any weight, that is, were it proper we thould do every thing we have power or inclination to, we might by the same plea throw ourselves down a precipice, because we have power to do it. The thief may steal, because he has a natural desire to ease rather than labour; the drunkard may drink himself to death, because it is natural to quench thirft; the passionate man may kill his enemy, because he has a natural disposition to repel injuries ; in short, if this plea be good for any thing, it renders all excelles, which take their first rise from a natural appetite, innocent.

Such an indulgence in sleep, in leisure or in action, and in relaxations or amusements, as may be neceffary for the refreshment and health of these frail vehicles



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we now inhabit is allowable. And the just measure of such indulgence is different according to different conftitutions and ways of life. But it is to be feared, that hundreds exceed the bounds of moderation, for one, who reftricts himself too much. Let every reader lay his hand upon his heart, and think what loft time he will have to answer for hereafter. The safe fide is, to indulge rather too little than too much. A tolerable constitution will hold better with eight hours sleep, in the twenty-four, than with more. And as to relaxations or diversions, the plea of their necessity is wholly groundless, except for those who live a laborious, or itudious life. What necessity for those, whose whole existence is one continued course of indolence and relaxation, for relaxation ? Relaxation from what ? Not from business; for they never do any. The proper relaxation from idleness, would be to do somewhat. And there is no mortal, who is one degree above an idiot, that is not capable of doing something worth living for.

Whoever can persuade himself, that it was the in. tention of his Maker, in placing him in this state of discipline, that he should pass an existence as useless as that of a stock or a stone, (supposing him innocent of all positive crimes) must have strange notions of the Divine Oeconomy, and of his own nature. If that sort of life be lawful and proper for one, it is so for all, And where would then be the business of life, the improvement of ourselves, the care of our children, the government of kingdoms, the advancement of the species toward a preparation for a future fiate of happiness? Let no one pretend, that he cannot find employment, till he has at least performed all that is prelcribed in this book.

I will here throw together a few remarks on some of the modern fashionable amusements.

Gaming is an amusement wholly unworthy of rational beings, having neither the pretence of exercising the body, of exerting ingenuity, or of giving any natural pleasure ; and owing its entertainment wholly to an unnatural and vitiated taste; the cause of infinite loss of

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