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when enacted, are, through the perverseness of the people, of very little efficacy.

These are not the effects of the love of our country. Nor the infamous practice of smuggling, and other mean arts, by which the laws for raising a revenue for defray. ing the necessary expences of government, are evaded. Yet it is notorious, that the ayowed principal of numbers of persons in trade, is, That all is well got, that is got by cheating the king, as they absurdly talk. For defrauding the public revenue, is in effect defrauding the people, who pay it, and making it necessary for the government to lay additional taxes, and to clog and incumber trade and industry, to make up the deficiencies occafioned by the depredations of a set of lawless people, the plague and ruin of fair traders. It is amazing, that rational creatures can contrive fo effectually to blind their reason, and stupify their conscience, as to bring themselves to argue, that though it is confessedly unjuftifiable and wicked in a son to disobey his parent, yet there is no harm in disobeying that authority, which is higher than the parental, I mean, that of the law of the land; that, though it is wrong to cheat or lie, there is no harm in taking a false oath at the custom-house, by which the guilt of perjury is incurred; the revenue, or more properly the nation, robbed; and the fair trader injured.

People may deceive themselves, as they please : But there is hardly any worse species of vice, than difubedience and infolence to supreme lawful authority. Nor will any person be fit for a future itate of peace, regularity, and perfect obedience to the universal Governor, (without which there can be no happiness) who has in this state habituated himself to lawless opposition and contempt of government,

To raise an oppofition or rebellion in a country against the supreme authority, except upon most powerful causes and motives, is a crime of as horrid and complicated a kind, as any to which human wickedness is capable of proceeding. For the consequences of a general difiorbance in a state, are the perpetration of all kinds of iniquity. And where so dreadful a conseqnence is


foreseen, it is evident, nothing less than the prevention of a total subversion of rights and privileges, civil and religious, of which the last is much the most important, is a sufficient plea for disturbing the general peace.

This was confeffedly the case at the Revolution in 1688. But those men, who delight in misrepresenting a government, and making them odious and vile in the eyes of the people, and do all they can to thwart and embarrass their measures, merely because themselves have no ihare in the emoluments of place and power, are the pests of society.

One of the greatest curses of our nation, and of li. berty in general, is that of our unhappy divisions and parties in religion and politics. As for the first, it is a subject of too serious and important a nature to be made a mere badge of faction, or a bone of contention. The design of religion is to improve and dignify our natures, to correct our errors in judgment, and to regulate our lives. And whoever applies it as a tool of state, as an artifice for aggrandizing himself or his friends, and a cloke to conceal his fecular views, is guilty of profti. tuting the most facred thing in the world to the vilest uses. As for political parties, it is notorious, that those who assume to themselves the most splendid titles of being on the patriot fide, or country-interest, and against the court, as their cant is, generally make a clamour for pretended liberty, and the good of their country, only to have their mouths stopped with a place or a penfion; and that, on the other hand, those who stand up in defence of all the measures of those in power, without distinction, only do so with a view to get, or to keep some cmolument. As it is inconceivable that either one or the other party Nould be constantly in the right, or invariably in the wrong, you may conclude, that whoever inclines univerfally for or against either fide, without ever altering his opinion, is either a man of very mean abilities, or has some indirect scheme in view. The trimmer, who gives his vote sometimes with one side, sometimes with the other, according to the view he has of the consequences, is the only man of integrity. And I cannot help adviling my readers to look upon all parties, and all who make either religion or politics a party-affair, in the same light, and to keep clear of all fides alike; making it their business to consult the real good of their country, and the real welfare of their fouls, without any eye to the fordid gains of corruption, or any defire to fight the battles of either party.


To conclude, our duty to our country comprehends all the relative duties, and we are to sacrifice private interest, family, and life itself to it, when called upon; and are to obey its laws in all cases, where they do not clash with the only superior authority in the universe, I mean the Divine.

Next under the authority of national government is the parental. The propriety and necessity of submisfion to parents appears from considering, that it is evidently necessary, that some person, or persons, should undertake the care of children in the helpless time of life ; and that none are so proper as the parents. In consequence of this, it is neceffary that children, before they come to the use of reason, be governed by authority, and there is none so natural as that of parents ; it is therefore their part to return the reciprocal duties of love, gratitude, reverence, and obedience to those who have taken care of them, when no one else would undertake that office. And it being once made the appointed course and order of things, the law of filial duty is not to be broke through by the children on account of a failure in the parents in discharging their duty ; nor; contrariwise, are parents to give up the care of their children, though they should turn out untowardly. Obedience to parents extends to all things that are confiftent with the laws of our country, and of God, both which authorities are superior to that of parents.

The duty of parents to their children is briefly to take care that proper provision be made for their bodily interest, by food, clothing, and education ; and more especially for that of their minds, by forming them, from the earliest years, to virtue and religion.

The duty of spiritual pastors to their people, is to do whatever is in their power for the good of the souls 2


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committed to their charge, by preaching, catechising, counselling, or writing. However improper it may be thought for a layman to enlarge upon this relative duty, it cannot be improper to refer to one, from whom directions on this head will come with unexceptionable authority; I mean the apostle Paul in his Epistles to Timothy. The duty of people to their pastors, is to shew them a great deal more reverence and gratitude than is commonly done in England. The duty of instructors of youth is briefly to fill the

parents in forming those consigned to their care by the parents, to usefulness in life, and happiness hereafter. The duty of young persons to their governors and teachers is obedience, and diligence in endeavouring to improve themselves, while under their care; and gratitude and love to those, by whose faithful diligence they had the opportunity of becoming wise and good men. And the duty of gratitude to parents and teachers on this account will be binding upon those who have been the objects of their care, not only for life, but to eternity.

The duty of masters to servants, is to pay them according to engagement; to treat them as fellow-creatures, though in an inferior Itation; and to take care, that they have opportunities of knowing their duty and means of happiness. That of servants to masters is faithfulness, diligence, and obedience in all lawful cafes.

The duty of husbands to wives, is the tenderest love, and warmest desire of their happiness in life, and to eternity. That of wives to husbands, besides reciprocal love, takes in obedience in all lawful things. This arises from the confideration of the priority of creation, and superior dignity of the male sex, to which Nature has given the greater strength of mind and body, and therefore fitted them for authority. But as, on one hand, it is not the part of a good wife to contest the authority of her huiband, so neither is it of a good husband to stand up for the privilege of his sex, while he thews little of the tenderness which is due to the weaker. This is, in short, a string never to be touched;


for it always introduces discord, and interrupts the matrimonial harmony.

Love is the fulfilling of the whole duty mutually owing by collateral relations, as brothers, lifters, and the like. And such persons may easily know whether they do their duty to one another, by considering how people behave to those they really love.

In friendship, of which I have treated in the first book, the duties are mutual love, fidelity, secrecy, and a defire of promoting one another's happiness both fpiritual and temporal. Virtue is the only foundation of friendsnip. The commerce of the wicked is rather to be called a combination or conspiracy against mankind, than friendship.

The duty of the rich to the poor, is feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, visiting the lick, and in general supplying the wants of the necessitous. Those to whom the Divine Providence has been distinguishingly bountiful, are to consider themselves as stewards of the good gifts of Heaven, which they are not to lavish away upon their own extravagant lusts, but to distribute to their distressed brethren. Nor ought they to think of this as an act of generosity, or almost of supererogation, as many seem, by their ostentatious way of giving charity, to do. It is not what they may do, or let alone. It is not to be carried to what length chey please, and no farther. They are expected to give all they can give, and then to think they have done only what they ought. Since to do less, if we will take our Saviour's own word for it, is a neglect which will exclude from future bliss. There is indeed great prudence to be used, that a judicious choice of objects may be made, and that the charity given may not prove a prejudice, instead of an advantage. If what is given serves to support in idleness and debauchery, it had much better be withheld. Care is also to be taken, that our charity be not given for fashion, oftentation, or any other view, but obedience to God, and benevolence to our fellow-creatures. In as far as any other confideration has influence, in so far the real excellence of such good works, is lessened in the fight of Him, who searches the heart.

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