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The complete distinctness of this first horn or ecclesiastical kingdom of the beast from the other, by means of their exemption from episcopal jurisdiction, will appear yet more evidently from the following passage.

“ While the pontiffs accumu. -“ lated upon the mendicants the most honourable “ distinctions and the most valuable privileges “ which they had to bestow, they exposed them “ still more and more to the envy and hatred of “ the rest of the clergy ; and this hatred was “ considerably increased by the audacious arro

gance that discovered itself every where in the “ conduct of these supercilious orders. They « had the presumption to declare publicly, that “they had a divine impulse and commission to “ illustrate and maintain the religion of Jesus;

they treated with the utmost insolence and contempt all the different ranks and orders of the “ priesthood; they affirmed without a blush, that « the true method of obtaining salvation was 6 revealed to them alone; proclaimed with us65 tentation the superior efficacy and virtue of “ their indulgences; and vaunted, beyond mea

sure, their interests at the court of heaven, and 66 their familiar connections with the Supreme

Being, the Virgin Mary, and the saints in

glory. By these impious wiles they so deluded - and captivated the miserable and blinded mul

titude, that they would not intrust any others K but the mendicants with the care of their souls,

ss their

« their spiritual and eternal concerns*.” Thus i't

appears, that the monastic orders constituted a well organized body, governed by their own laws, exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, subject to their respective generals or superiors, but paying at the same time an implicit obedience to the Pope. In short they perfectly answer to every idea that we can form of an ecclesiustical kingdom under the control of the heud of un ecclesiastical empire.

The second horn of the beast I suppose to be the secular popish clergy. As the monks were subject, first to the superiors of their orders, and ultimately to the Pope ; so the secular or parochial clergy were subject, first to their respective bishops, and ultimately to the sovereign pontiff. Various preparatory steps were taken towards the erecting of this second ecclesiastical horn or kingdom before the year 606, when the Pope was declared universal Bishop, and whence therefore I date the rise of the second beast or the papal catholic empire. The decrees of the Emperors, and the metropolitan dignity of Rome, gradually conferred upon the Popes an archiepiscopal authority over the western bishops, previous to the time when they were formally declaredby Phocas the head of the universal Churcht. In the eighth century Germany was

* Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. iii. p. 204.

+ The reader will find a very circumstantial account of the manner in which the Bishops of Rome gradually extended their authority over the West, in Sir Isaac Newton's Observ, on Daniel, Chap. vii.


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reduced under the yoke by an English friar named Boniface, whom Gregory the third consecrated Archbishop of Mentz; constituting him at the same time his vicar, with full power to call coun-. cils, and to constitute bishops in those places, which were by his assistance converted to the Christian faith. In the first of these councils, Boniface presiding in quality of legate of the Roman chair, the clergy signed a certain confession, of faith, whereby they obliged themselves, not only to maintain the catholic faith, but also to remain in constant union with the Roman church, and to be obedient to the successors of St. Peter, “ This Boniface,” says Puffendorff, " was the first

who put it upon the bishops of Germany, to « receive the episcopal pall froin the Pope, who « sent it to the bishops of France without their { request, thereby to unite them with the Roinan

chair. And, when once these ornaments were ço become customary amongst them, they were " put upon them afterwards as of absolute ne

cessity; and the episcopal function was for* bidden to be exercised by them before they had “' received these ornaments *." The same author further observes, “ Besides this, the Popes assumed “ to themselves an authority of giving leave to “ the bishops to remove from one episcopal see «« to another, and obliged all the western bishops ' * to receive their confirmation from Rome, for

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* Introduct. to Hist. of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 404.


* which they were obliged to pay a certain sum * of money as an acknowledgment, which was “ since converted to annats, The Popes also, by “ making void the decisions of the provincial so synods or assemblies, overthrew their authosi rity: wherefore, when every body plainly.pers ceived that the decrees of these assemblies 66 could produce no other effects but to be contiss nually annulled by the Popes, without so much “ as hearkening to any reasons, they were by “ degrees quite abolished, Pope Gregory the 5 seventh also forced the bishops to swear an oath so of fealty to the Pope, and by a decree forbad*, " that none should dare to condemn any one that $6 had appealed to the Pope. They were also not “ forgetful in sending legates or nuncios to all “ places; whose business was to exercise in the “ name of the Pope the same authority, which « had formerly belonged to the bishops, metro. s politans, and provincial assemblies t.” In this passage mention is made of the oath of fealty exacted by Gregory the seventh from the bishops. A similar oath has been imposed, even since the Reformation, by Pius the fourth on all the beneficed clergy. He decreed, that they should all swear true obedience to the Roman pontill, the successor of St. Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ f. In short, how completely the clergy under their

* Enacted. + Introduct. to Hist. of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 406. Ibid. p. 407.



bishops became one of the trvo ecclesiastical kinga doms of the papal beast, will best appear from the following oath, set forth by order of Pope Clement the eighth to be taken by all bishops at their consecration, and by all metropolitans at their instalment.

“ I N. elect of the church of N. from hence“ forward will be faithful and obedient to St. “ Peter the Apostle, and to the holy Roman “ church, and to our Lord, the lord N. Pope N. « and to his successors canonically coming in. “ I will neither advise, consent, or do any thing, “ that they may lose life or member, or that their

persons may be seized, or hands any wise laid

upon them, or any injuries offered to them “ under any pretence whatsoever. The counsel, " which they shall intrust me withal, by them"selves, their messengers, or letters, I will not

knowingly reveal to any to their prejudice. I “ will help them to defend and keep the Roman Papacy and the royalties of St. Peter, saving

my order, against all men. The legate of the “ apostolic see, going and coming, I will honour" ably treat and help in his necessities. The

rights, honours, privileges, and authority, of “ the holy Roman church, of our lord the Pope, “ and his foresaid successors, I will endeavour to preserve, defend, increase, and advance. “ I will not be in any counsel, action, or treaty, “ in which shall be plotted against our said lord, “ and the said Roman church, any thing to the

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