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and his Goths; but perfectly wrong, in placing Attila and his Huns under the second trumpet, instead of under the first. Such an arrangement, in fact, proves itself to be erroneous; for it has led the Bishop to a complete violation of the principles of symbolical language in his remarks both upon the second, the third, and the fourth trumpet. He in. terprets for instance the burning mountain to mean Attila ; the falling star, to mean Genseric; and the eclipse of the sun, moon, and stars, to mean the extinction of the imperial dignity in the person of Augustulus, and the eclipse of the senate and con suls under the government of the Gothic sovereigns of Italy. The symbol however of a mountain set on fire, torn violently from its base, and hurled into ihe sea, must surely mean, agreeably to the parallel passage in Jeremiah*, not a victorious prince, but

a subverted empire. So again: the symbol of a fallen star denotes either a king hurled from the Šummit of his power, or an apostate pastor : hence it is plainly impossible, that the fallen star of the third trumpet should be Genseric; for he was not a minister of the Gospel, and he was a triumphant instead of being a vanquished sovereign. Lastly, an eclipse of the sun, moon, and stars, cannot be fairly interpreted to mean an extinction of the sun, and only an eclipse of the other luminaries : yet does the scheme of Bp. Newton, hy leading him to view the Western Empire as something altogether

* Jerem, li, 25.

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* Whatever objections are here made to the scheme of Bp. Newton apply with equal force to that of Mr. Whitaker, whó has throughout followed the Bishop, enlarging only very considerably upon the brief remarks of his predecessor. I am indebted to him for some useful hints in the elucidation of the Agil-storm of the North,

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CHAPTER VIII.

of the three last apocalyptic trumpets, or, as they

are peculiarly styled, the three woe-trumpets.

HE that letted being now removed, the prophet relates the history of the great Apostasy, which he details under the three last trumpets, usually denominated the three woe-trumpets. He begins with an account of the Eastern branch of the Apostasy under the two first woe-trumpets. He next proceeds to the parallel history of the Western branch of the Apostasy, which he gives at large under the two first woe-trumpets, and more briefly under the third : and, in order that his narrative may be unbroken, and that all confusion may pe prevented, he throws the whole his tory of the western Apostasy, under all the three trumpets, and during the entire period of 1260 years, into a little book, or codicil to the larger book of the Apocalypse. And he finally details at large the operation of the last woe-trumpet, which contains within itself the seven vials, both in the East and in the West. 19

Concerning

Concerning the three woe-trumpets themselves it may briefly be observed in general: that the first describes the rise of the twofold Apostasy'; the second represents it in the zenith of its power, till the primary and only partial manifestation of Antichrist* ; and the third exhibits its downfall,

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* The French revolution in the year 1789. It professed to establish a limited monarchy, respecting at once the prerogatives of a lawful prince, and the liberties of the people. This only partial revelation of Antichrist deceived numbers, and led them to form the romantic idea, that France was become (to use the detestable cant of the day) a regenerated kingdom. Four years however were not suffered to elapse from the commencement of the revolution, ere the streets of Paris and the provincial towns streamed with the blood of innumerable victims, ere the sovereign himself was brought to the scaffold, ere religion was abolished, and a sort of jumble of atheism and idolatry was established in its stead. In the first year of Gallic liberty, Antichrist was partially revealed; in the fourth year of liberty, and the first year of equality (Aug. 12, 1792) he threw off his mask of toleration, candour, and universal philanthropy; and stood openly revealed in all his native deformity. His lamb-like pretensions to reason, moderation, and humanity, vanished as the fleeting clouds of the morning: and the astonished world suddenly beheld the existence of an “execrable

power, which alone has steeled the hearts of its votaries “ against every feeling of nature; has dared to sanction trea

son, parricide, lust, and massacre, and to infuse into the “breasts of its subject multitudes a new passion, which has « sunk them beneath the level of the brute creation; a pas«sion for the sight of their fellow-creatures in the agonies of « death, and a literal thirst for human blood." Hist. the Inter. Vol. ij. p. 215, 216.

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displaying at the same time the multiplied horrors of the harvest and vintage of the Lord, or the uncontrouled reign of the atheistical king and his subsequent destruction along with all the other enemies of God, and at length conducting us to that happy period when all the kingdoms of the world shall become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ,

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