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“ mandments, and the Apostles'creed, in the vulgar

tongue*, that was criminal enough to bring them “ to the stake, as it did six men and a woman at

Coventry in the Passion week 15197.” Here it may be observed, that, while the first or secular beast is represented as making war with the saints and overcoming them, it is no where said that the second or ecclesiastical beast should do more than cause them to be killed. The above-cited decree of the council of Lateran shew's how exact the prophecy has been in this particular. The little horn hath always worn out the saints by causing them to be killed, or by delivering them over to the secular armi, not by literally slaying them ilself. “ Who can make any computation, or even “ frame any conception, of the numbers of pious

Christians, who have fallen a sacrifice to the

bigotry and cruelty of Rome? Mede hath ob“ served from good authorities, that in the war “ with the Waldenses and Albigenses there perished

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* In direct opposition to this abominable system of keeping the people in .profound ignorance, the church of England specially charges all sponsors to provide, that the child, for whom they have been sureties, “ may learn the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the ten Commandments, in the vulgar tongue, “ and all other things which a Christian ought to know and “ believe to his soul's health.” Office of Baptism. + Hist. of Reformation cited by Whitaker, p. 419.

On this occasion, the Inquisitors, with a disgusting affectation of lamb-like meekness, are wont to beseech the civil magistrates to shew mercy to those unfortunate victims whori they themselves have given up to be consigned to the flames.

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of these poor creatures in France alone a million. « From the first institution of the Jesuits to the year 1480, that is in little more than thirty

years, 900,000 orthodox Christians were slain. “ In the Netherlands alone, the Duke of Alva “ boasted, that within a few years he had dis

patched to the amount of 36,000'souls, and “ those all by the hand of the common executioner. “ In the space of scarce thirty years, the Inqui“sition destroyed, by various kinds of tortures, 150,000

Christians. Sanders himself confesses, « that an innumerable multitude of Lollards and

Sacramentarians were burnt throughout all Europe;


says, were not put to death by the Pope and Bishops, but by the civil magis« trates : which perfectly agrees with this pro

phecy; for of the secular beast * it is said, that “ he should make war with the saints and overcome them ti'

4. He exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him-Cardinals, Prelates, and Monks, were long the prime ministers of the European sovereigns: and the names of Wolsey, Ximenes, Richlieu, and Mazarine, are handed down to posterity as the most intriguing and ambitious of statesmen, The second breast indeed is properly “an ecclesias

who yet,

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It is not unworthy of notice, that Bp. Newton here speaks of the first beast as being, what he really is, the secular Roman empire, as contradistinguished from the second beast or the Roman church.

+ Bp. Newton's Dissert. on Rev. xiii. Vol. II,


86 tical


“ tical person, but he intermixeth himself much in “civil affairs. He is the prime minister, adviser, “ and mover of the first beast * He holdeth

imperium in imperio, an empire within an empire; “ claimeth a temporal authority, as well as a spiri« tual; hath not only the principal direction of the “ temporal powers, but often engageth them in his

service, and enforceth his canons and decrees o with the sword of the civil magistrate t."

5. He causeth the earth and all that dwell therein to worship the first beast whose deadly wound was healed The nature of this worship of the secular , beast I have already considered. It will be sufficient therefore at present to observe, that, since it is impossible for Daniel's fourth beast or the Roman empire to be literally worshipped, the ado. ration here spoken of must mean a devotion to those principles by which the empire was equally made a beast both under its pagan and its papal emperors, both under its sixth head and its last. Those principles consisted in the worship of images, and in the persecution of the saints: and it was the second beast, who by his influence caused the whole Roman earth once more to adopt them under Popery, as it had heretofore adopted them

* Here again the Bishop speaks of the first beast as being the secular empire. Thus does his original opinion force itself, as it were, upon him, notwithstanding all that he had subsequently said respecting the identity of the papul little horn and the first beast. # Bp. Newton's Dissert, on Rev. xiii.


under Paganism; it was the second beast, who made an image for the first, and caused all men to fall down and worship it *.

6. He

* The interpretation of the worship paid to the first or secular beast, proposed by Bp. Newton, is to my mind very unsatisfactory. “ As the first beast concurs to maintain the authority " of the second, so he in return confirms and maintains the sovereignty and dominion of the first beast over his subjects; “ and causeth the earth, and them who dwell therein, to wore. " ship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. He "supports tyranny, as he is by tyranny supported. He in“ slaves the consciences, as the first beast subjugates the bodies u of men” (Dissert. on Rev. xiii.). Hence it appears, that the Bishop conceives, the worship, which was paid to the secular beast at the instigation of the ecclesiastical beast, to be merely civil worship so far increased as to become passive obedience. Now bad as tyranny in the state may be, the whole criminality of it must be ascribed to the governors ; not surely to the governed, to those who patiently submit themselves like the primitive Christians to every ordinance of man however tyrannical for the Lord's sake, lest by resisting they should receive damnation. Were nothing more then meant by worá shipping the beast than an unresisting submission to civil tyranny, or (as Mr. Whiston cited by the Bishop styles it) "a blind obedience ;" the worshippers of the beast would never have been censured by the prophet for yielding such submisa sion, however severely he might have animadverted upon the two beasts for recommending and exacting it. “If any man

worship the beast and his image,--the same shall drink of “ the wine of the wrath of God, and he shall be tormented “ with fire and brimstone ;-and the smoke of their torment o ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day « nor night, who worship the beast and his image” (Rev. xiv. 9, 10, 11.). Can we suppose, that so severe a punishment as eternal dampation will be inflicted upon those who suffer their X2


6. He doeth great wonders, in order that he may make fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men-“ Miracles, visions, and revela“ tions, are the mighty boast of the church of Rome, « the contrivances of an artful cunning clergy to "impose upon an ignorant laity." These wonders the beast did partly in order that he might make fire come down from heaven upon earth ; and partly, as we shall hereafter see, with a view so to


bodies to be subjugated by the first beast? It is plain, that the worship of the beast is connected with the worship of his image; and that this worship is something so offensive in the eyes of God as to incur the penalty of hell fire: can it then mean nothing more than submitting to the sovereignty and dominion of the first beast? It may be remarked, that Bp. Newton here again speaks of the first beast as being, not the Papacy, but the secular Roman empire:' and it may further be remarked, that his present interpretation of the worship paid to the beast by no means accords with that which he had previously given, and which I believe to be the true one. All the world wondered after the " beast, and they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the " beast, and they worshipped the beast, saying; Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him? No kingdom

or empire was like that of the beast, it had not a parallel

upon earth, and it was in vain for any to resist or oppose it, " it prevailed and triumphed over all; and all the world, in " submitting thus to the religion of the beast, did in effect sub" mit again to the religion of the dragon, it being the old ido

latry with new names. The worshipping of demons and idols " is in effect the worshipping of devils" (Dissert. on Rev. xiii.). Here we see a plain reason why the worship of the beast is threat. ened with eternal damnation : it consists in embracing those principles, which constituted alike the bespality of the pagan and papal Roman empires; not in paying civil homage to the best.


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