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day, and a month, and a year ; or 391 natural years and 15 days. The accurate accomplishment of this numerical prophecy is singularly remarkable. The Turks, under Ortogrul, gained their first victory over the Greek empire in the year 1281, by the conquest of Cutahi: in- the

year 1357, they crossed over into Europe: in the year 1453, they took Constantinople; and the remaining provinces of the empire soon followed the fate of the capital: in the year 1669, they made themselves masters of Crete; and in the year 1672, they wrested Cameniec, their last conquest, from the Poles. If now we compute 391 years from the year 1281, they will exactly bring us down to the year 1672. Upon this wonderful coincidence, Bp. Newton further remarks, “if more accurate « and authentic histories of the Ottomans were “ brought to light, and we knew the very day “ wherein Cutahi was taken as certainly as we « know that wherein Cameniec was taken, the “ like exactness might also be found in the fifteen « days," Since the time of their last conquest, the Turks have had various wars with the European powers, and with various success; but they have never made any fresh territorial acquisition, and now in all human probability never will.

The cavalry of the Euphratèan toarriors is described as consisting of myriads upon myriads : and they are represented as wearing breast-plates of fire, of hyacinth, and. of brimstone ; or, in other words, red, blue, and yellow, The Turks


brought inmense armies into the field, composed chiefly of horse; and, from the first time of their appearance, have been peculiarly attached to the colours of blue, yellow, and scarlet--The heads of their horses were as the heads of lions, to denote their great strength and fierceness : out of their mouths seemed to issue fire, and smoke, and brinstone : and by this semblance of lightning, the prophet observed, that the third part of men were killed. This is a manifest allusion to artillery and gunpowder, which were invented under the sixth trumpet, and were the main engines used by the Turks, in subverting the Greek empire--The horses moreover had power to do hurt by their tails, as well as by their mouths, their tails being like unto serpents, and having heads. The Turks, like the Saracens, were not merely sécular conquerors, but were animated with all the wild fanaticism of a false religion. They profess and propagate the same imposture; they injure no less by their doctrines, than by their conquests; and, wherever they establish their dominion, the Koran triumphs over the Gospel.

Yet, notwithstanding the signal overthrow of the Constantinopolitan monarchy, the rest of men, who were not killed by these plagues, repented not of their idolatrous worship of mediatory saints and angels, nor of their spiritual sorceries and fornication---Accordingly we find, that in the papal church idolatry was at its lieight during the sounding of the sixth trumpet : in the same manner as



Mohammedism attained to the zenith of its glory by the subversion of the Greek empire. Previous to this period, the Greek church had struggled successfully with the Roman church for independence and equality: but the downfall of Constantinople effectually humbled both the ecclesiastical rival of Popery, and the temporal antagonist of Mohammedism. In the days of the Saracens, the Arabian imposture triumphed over the proud monarchy of Persia; but was only able to torment the declining remains of the once formidable empire of Rome. In the days of the Turks, it beheld the city of Constantine prostrate at its feet, as well as the capital of Chosroes. Still however did the Church of Rome continue her triumphs over sense, humanity, and religion. Unawed by the signal punishment of her sister of Constantinople, she resolutely set her face against the reformation which commenced under this trumpet, and persecuted those who protested against her superstition and appealed to Scripture: a more tremendous pewer. therefore, than either the Saracens or the Turks, will be summoned against her by the blast of the third woe ; which nevertheless will afterwards perish, united with her.

It is observable, that the precise duration of the second woe-trumpet is not marked by St. John in his prophecy of the Euphratèan horsemen. The Turks were prepared for the slaughter of the third part of men, an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year ; or 391 natural years and 15 days : conse


quently the second woe-trumpet began to sound at the commencement of those 391 years, or in the year of our Lord 1281; but it does not terminate till the great earthquake in the West has taken place, and till a tenth part of the Roman city has fallen*. Then we are informed, that “ the second woe is past, and, behold, the third « woe cometh quickly.”

* Rev. xi. 13.


Contents of the little book-History of the Western

Apostasy under the three woe-trumpets.

ST. JOHN, having shewn the effects of the two first wok-trumpets in the East, next passes to the collateral and contemporary history of the West : for the same woe-trumpet, which called into action the Mohammedan Apostasy, produced likewise tlie developement of the papal Apostasy ; both these two little horns commencing their joint reign of 1 260 prophetic days in the selfsame year.

In order to avoid needless confusion, the Apostle throws the whole history of Popery, during the rahole 1260 days, and under all the three woetrumpets*, into a sort of episode to his general


Bp. Newton is certainly mistaken in saying, that the little book properly cometh under the sixth trumpet.The little book itself repeatedly declares, that it comprehends all the 1260 years : but the 1260 yeurs extend through the whole period of the three woe-trumpets; or at least through the whole of it; exeept that part which is included in the effusion of the last vial, and which synchronizes with Daniel's time of the end : whence it is manifest, that the little book must include, not only the sirth trumpet, but the fifth and seventh also. This is sufficiently



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