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1. The Papal horn arose, as we have seen, at the precise time when Daniel predicted that it should arise; namely, while the Roman empire was falling asunder, and while ten independent kingdoms were springing up out of its ruins. It arose gradually and almost imperceptibly among and behind the ten horns of the fourth beast ; three of which were successively eradicated before it, and by their fall gave it an opportunity of becoming a temporal no less than a spiritual power. For some time after its rise it was only an ecclesiastical kingdom: but that kingdom, though small at first, continued perpetually to increase in size; till, in the when the Pope was declared Universal Bishop and supreme head of the catholic Church, it became a mighty ecclesiastical empire. At this era, which seems to be the proper date of the 1260 years, and the epoch when the old pagan Roman beast which had been mortally wounded by the sword of the Spirit under his sixth head revived under the same sixth head by setting up a spiritual tyrant in the Church and by relapsing into idolatry, St. John first introduces upon the stage the power which Daniel symbolizes by the little horn of the fourth beast. That power however was now become an universal empire, instead of being, what it had hitherto been, a limited ecclesiastical kingdom. Hence the Apostle, instead of representing the ten-horned beast as having likewise a little horn, describes him as attended by a second beast, whose character precisely answers to that of the little
horn. By the instigation of this corrupt spiritual power, the ten-horned beast, or the secular Roman 'empire, wages war with the saints during the period of the 1260 days, through the instrumentality either of his last head or his ten horns.
2. The desolating transgression of Mohammedisin arose in the same year that the Papal horn became an universal spiritual empire. A few years after its rise, it acquired its predicted character of a little horn of the Macedonian he-goat ; and soon, agreeably to the prophecy, waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. In the course of its
progress it çast down many of the symbolical stars or Christian pastors, to the ground; took away the daily sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; polluted the spiritual sanctuary; and presumed to magnify itself against even the Prince of princes. As for its character, it was notorious for trampling upon the truth; for prospering in a wonderful manner; for making its appearance, exactly when the transgressors were come to the full by publicly re-establishing idolatry; for teaching dark sentences'; for being mighty not through its own unaided power ; for exterminating its opponents with the utmost barbarity ; for persecuting with peculiar violence the people of the Holy Ones ; for advancing itself by craft; and for destroying many while in a state of negligent security.
In the Apocalypse a more full account is given of the agents by whom this apostate religion should
be propagated. A fallen star opens the bottomless pit, and lets out the destroying king of the locusts. These locusts are permitted to continue their ravages during the space of five prophetic months or 150 years; which is found from history to be the precise period allotted to the continuation of the Saracenic incursions. The locusts are succeeded by an immense body of horsemen under four leaders from the banks of the Euphrates ; whose commission is limited to an hour and a day and a month and a year, or 391 years and 15 days, and who are empowered to kill a third part of men or the Roman empire, which their predecessors the Saracenic locusts had only been permitted to torment. History accordingly teaches us, that the Saracens were succeeded by the Turks: who came under four leaders from the banks of the Euphrates; whose armies consisted almost entirely of cavalry; whose career of conquest: exactly continued 3911 years; and who subverted the Constantinopolitan empire, which the Saracens, severely as they harassed it, had never been able to effect.
The Mohammedan little horn itself, or the religion of Mohammed, is to prevail to the end of 2400 years from the latter part of the first year of Cyrus and from the restoration of the Jews from Babylon; which is found to bring us down exactly to the year 1866, and thus to allow precisely 1260 years for the triumphs of Mohammedism, reckoning from its commencement in the year 606. 3. After the era of the Reformation, and in the
last days of atheism and insubordination, but previous to the commencement of the time of the end, the infidel king, according to the sure word of prophecy, was destined to arise ; that Antichrist, who was alike to deny both the Father and the Son; that audacious tyrant, who should magnify himself above every god, who should speak marvellous things against the God of gods, who should nei. ther regard the God of his fathers nor the Desire of women, who should nevertheless honour a foreign god and acknowledge gods protectors, and who should be allowed to prosper till the indignation be accomplished.
As the contemporary rise and progress of Popery and Mohammedism is described in the Apocalypse under the two first woe-trumpets, so the appearance of the great Antichrist is announced by the third. His full developement however is to be immediately preceded by the last event of the second woe-trumpet, a tremendous earthquake by which a tenth part of the great Latin city, or one of the ten horns of the Roman beast, is to be overthrown, This last woe, which extends beyond the termination of the 1260 years at least to the end of the seventh vial, if not to the commencement of the Millennium, comprehends the periods of the harvest and the vintage.
Thus, after the epoch of the Reformation, and immediately after the French Revolution of the year 1789, we have seen the manifestation of a terrific monster, which alike set at defiance the
laws both of God and man. We have beheld scenes of 'carnage and impiety, which well deserve to be ushered in by a distinct woe-trumpet, and which may justly claim to themselves the title of a harvest of God's wrath, These scenes have at length passed away, like the distempered and fantastic visions of a sick man; and the sun of military tyranny has begun to scorch the irreclaimable inhabitants of the Papal Roman empire with an intolerable heat. The madness of the harvest there. fore is past; and we must expect in due season the commencement of the vintage, in which the enemies of God will be finally destroyed for ever.
At present we are living under the fourth vial*; and, from the great length of time which both Popery and Mohammedism have continue, we cannot be very far removed from the end of the 1260 days, whatever be the precise year from which they ought to be dated. The
which I have fixed upon for their date, is the year 606; a year marked by so singular a combination of circumstances, that I know not how any other can with equal propriety be selected. If then I be right in my opinion, we are now removed' but little more than 60 years from the commencement of the time of the end and of the vintage of Gad's wrath. Be this however as it may, we are undoubtedly living in the last days of blasphemous
* I have already stated it to be not improbable, that the fifth vial may have been poured out since this work was first pube lished. June 10. 1806.