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This is not at all surprising. Cheapness of living, of education, of amusements-a mild government and agreeable society-the abundance of all the necessaries of life, of fine fruits and vegetables in particular, are temptations; though we pity those who have not the virtue to resist them. A small basket,' says Dr. Granville, of the finest peaches in the world has been bought for ten cents. in the summer; I have seen some magnificent pears sold in the market for three cents. the pound. Bread is of an excellent quality throughout Flanders, perfectly white, light, and highly flavoured; and its price is not more than half of what it bears in England.' And he concludes the many advantages of Brussels, by stating, as a fact, that the greatest number of the English residents in Brussels, or any of the provincial towns, live in comparative affluence on an annual income which would not enable them, without the strictest economy, to struggle through life at home.' This is probably not far from the truth; and Dr. Grauville is too much a man of the world to hint that in such cases one ought not to think wholly of selfish and immediate gratifications. Who has a right to spend systematically an income, however narrow, resulting from English property, protected by English laws, where he escapes from his obligation to defray a fair part of the expense of maintaining those laws in authority, and that property in safety? We do not wish to press such an argument to extremity; but assuredly it is one that ought not to be wholly neglected. We fear the poet has some reason when he says that expense' is become an idolatry' among us. 'We must run glittering like a brook
In the open sunshine, or we are unblest.'
At Aix-la-Chapelle, Dr. Granville visited, as who does not? the old dom-church built by Charlemagne, and felt much interest, he says, in holding in his hand the real skull (credat Judæus!) of the gigantic emperor.' However, be the skull whose it may, he found strongly marked and ample, in its upper region, what are called by phrenologists the organs of self-will and veneration. We have a higher opinion of Dr. Granville's sagacity than to suppose him capable of being deluded by so gross a piece of quackery as craniology-for that is its proper name. Let him leave that, by all means, to the young gentlemen of Edinburgh, who pretend to believe as strongly in the infallibillity of their patron Spurzheim, as a good catholic does in that of the pope; each equally contrary to common sense and human reason. While on this subject, we will tell these northern bump-hunters a little anecdote of their oracle which we know to be true.
On visiting the studio of a celebrated sculptor in London, his attention was drawn to a bust with a remarkable depth of skull
from the forehead to the occiput. 'What a noble head,' he exclaimed, is that! full seven inches! What superior powers
of mind must he be endowed with, who possesses such a head as is here represented !' Why, yes,' says the blunt artist, 'he certainly was a very extraordinary man that is the bust of my early friend and first patron, John Horne Tooke.' Aye,' answers the craniologist, you see there is something after all in our science, notwithstanding the scoffs of many of your countrymen.' 'Certainly,' says the sculptor; but here is another bust, with a greater depth and a still more capacious forehead.' 'Bless me!' exclaims
the craniologist, taking out his rule, 'eight inches! who can this be? this is indeed a head-in this there can be no mistake: what depth of intellect, what profundity of thought, must reside in that skull! this I am sure must belong to some extraordinary and well-known character.' Why, yes,' says the sculptor,' he is pretty well known-it is the head of Lord Pomfret.'
Dr. Granville tells us there are three Farinas in Cologne who make the perfumed water which bears its name, but that only one is the genuine descendant of the inventor and proprietor of the secret; and it may be useful to the traveller to know that the legitimate distiller has his magasin opposite to the Poste aux lettres. The doctor then lets us into his secret for making Eau de Cologne, equally good with that of the best Farina, and at one-fourth of the price; which we shall give, that any of our readers may try the experiment if they please :
'Take of the essence of bergamot, lemon-peel, lavender, and orangeflower, of each one ounce; essence of cinnamon, half an ounce; spirit of rosemary, and of the spirituous water of melisse, of each fifteen ounces; strong alcohol, seven pints and a half. Mix the whole together, and let the mixture stand for the space of a fortnight; after which, introduce it into a glass retort, the body of which is immersed into boiling water contained in a vessel placed over a lamp, while the beak is introduced into a large glass reservoir well luted. By keeping the water to the boiling point, the mixture in the retort will distil over into the receiver, which should be covered over with wet cloths. In this manner will be obtained pure Eau de Cologne.'-vol. i., p. 118.
Unqualified praise is given to the king of Prussia for having founded, in the year 1818, the university of Bonn, with a donation of the castles of Bonn and Poppelsdorf and the land belonging to them; establishing five faculties-three for jurisprudence, medi+ cine, and general science, which includes all branches of literature,
-and two for theology, one for protestant and the other for catho lic students. In that of literature, there is also a protestant and a catholic professor. This is certainly most liberal on the part of his Prussian Majesty, whose declared sentiments on this occasion
reflect the greatest honour on his head and his heart. 'I confidently hope,' his Majesty observes, that the university of Bonn will act in the spirit which dictated its foundation, in promoting true piety, sound sense, and good morals. By this my faithful subjects may know and learn with what patriotic affection I view the equal, impartial, and solid instruction of them all; and how much I consider education as the means of preventing those turbulent and fruitless efforts so injurious to the welfare of nations.'
But, alas! how often do the best intentions precede the worst consequences! Instead of education being the means of preventing those turbulent efforts,' which his Prussian Majesty so justly condemns, the universities of Germany are the very hives of sedition and turbulence. At this moment the university of Heidelberg is completely deserted. It appears that these ungovernable youths were holding democratic meetings; and a report having spread that the Grand Duke of Baden intended to arrest some of the leaders, the whole swarm of about eight hundred burst forth into the streets, bawling out Burschen, heraus! Turn out, turn out,' and marched off to a town a few leagues from Heidelberg, from whence they despatched terms of capitulation to their professors. Hearing, however, that some Baden dragoons were on their march towards Heidelberg, these mutineers crossed over to the left bank of the Rhine to Frankenthal; and thither certain professors were sent as deputies to negotiate with them, but without effect-the negotiators having insisted on a certain number of the ringleaders being given up for punishment. The council of ancients among the students had the impudence to pronounce an anathema against the university of Heidelberg for three years, during which time every German is forbidden to study there, after which they dispersed to their own homes. It is remarkable enough that, while these were transacting, the congress of German naturalists and physicians were holding their seventh meeting at Berlin, and appointed Heidelberg for that of next year. We do not imagine that the king of Prussia need entertain any apprehension of the students of Bonn following so pernicious an example; though it is somewhat singular that Niebuhr, the Roman historian, should be one of the professors whose political principles, originally promulgated in that work, were supposed, as Dr. Granville says, ' to have influenced some of those scenes of turbulence that mark part of the recent history of the German universities.' However, in a second edition, the learned author has rejected and disowned those political principles.* We have no fear, certainly, of Bonn,
* We wish we could say the same as to his absurd and shallow doctrines of another class
Bonn, nor of Berlin, whose university contains upwards of sixteen hundred students. Should they venture to rebel, his Prussian Majesty would not hesitate to march the whole of them into the ranks; and, indeed, this would be a proper measure to pursue every now and then with regard to the German students: a set of young men who certainly pursue their studies with zeal, but who nevertheless are more brutal in conduct, more insolent in manner, more slovenly and ruffian-like in appearance, and more offensive from the fumes of tobacco and beer, onions and sourcrout, in which they are enveloped, than are to be met with in any other part of Europe. In a small town of a small state a Ġerman university is a horrible nuisance; and how the elegant court of Weimar, in particular, can tolerate the existence of one within an hour's ride of its palace, where we have seen ragamuffins fighting with broad-swords in the market-place, moves our special
To the university of Bonn is attached a rich collection of subjects in natural history, and a botanical garden; and such is its success, from the celebrity of its professors, among whom is numbered the illustrious William Schlegel, that, as Dr. Granville states, 'there are at this time about one thousand and twenty students who, for twenty pounds in university and professors' fees, and forty more for living, get a first-rate education.' The climate and the situation on the banks of the Rhine are most inviting; and a beautiful avenue of chesnut trees, nearly a mile in length, joins the castle of Poppelsdorf, which contains the cabinets of natural history, with the university.
We must leave Roland the Bold and Hildegunde the Fair, and the beauteous Gertrude of Lilienstein, the Drachenfels, the Lurleyberg, and the lovely Undine, to such as can be pleased with romantic stories re-hashed by Dr. Granville, and hasten towards the grand theatre of his descriptive powers and graphical illustrations, to which about one half of his volumes is appropriated. We must not even suffer ourselves to be seduced by the Schlossenberger, the Markobrunner, the Rudesheim, and
class-but these remain; and, by the by, we think his last translators, two clergymen of the church of England, since they have exercised the right of adding notes to Niebuhr's text wherever they fancied they had anything worth hearing to offer, might have as well remarked, for the benefit of their young academical readers, on some of the most offensive paragraphs which have appeared since the days of the Philosophical Dictionary. But Niebuhr is, what Mr. Wordsworth should not have called Voltaire, 'a pert, dull scoffer.' We regret this omission the more, because one of these translators appears, to us to be a man of great talents. He has written two prefaces, one to his version of Schleyermacher on St. Luke, and another to some novels from the German, which are sufficient to place him in an eminent rank. Pity that such talents should be wasted on the drudgery of translation -and pity still more that the works rendered by such a hand should in any instance be pregnant with crude and dangerous speculations.
the many other luscious wines, whose qualities and prices are so fully detailed by Mr. Arnold Mumm, who holds the best stocked cellar in Frankfort, that city of palaces and pleasure. We cannot, however, refuse to halt for a moment to hear with what melodious strains the market people are regaled at Weimar.
On the morning after our arrival, I was delighted and surprised at the sound of a beautiful waltz, exquisitely performed on wind instruments, apparently not far off. This attracted us to the window, when, instead of one of those wandering troops of musicians, which one expects to see at the door of an hotel, greeting, for the sake of a few sous, the newly arrived traveller, we observed a numerous band, perched in the stone balcony near the very top of the lofty Rathhaus, regaling with delightful performances of music taken from books regularly set before them, the assembled multitude in the market below, who listened to the different pieces with the indifference of persons evidently accustomed to such a practice. I learned, in fact, shortly after, from Meinherr Hoffman, a respectable bookseller, that this morning-concert is repeated regularly twice a week, on market-days at eleven o'clock, agreeably to a contract entered into by a society of musicians with the city authorities, who have likewise engaged them to furnish all the sacred music and performers requisite for the church service.'-vol. i. pp. 214, 215.
The good people of Weimar appear, indeed, to be most enthu siastic lovers of music, affording, as the Doctor thinks, strong proofs of melomania. Every householder of any importance subscribes an annual sum to a band of musicians, who go round in long cloaks to each house, singing fugas and canons, unaccom panied by instruments, in the most beautiful and correct style imaginable,—something, we suppose, in the style of the Tyrolese minstrels. We cannot leave Weimar without giving a specimen 'comment les Allemands mangent,-for Dr. G.'s specimen may serve for all the north of Germany.
'I determined on joining one day the first and most frequented table d'hôte kept in Weimar, at which, as I had previously been told, I should be sure of meeting with a select number of highly respectable people, who, having no regular household establishment, usually frequent these convenient places. Alas! things seldom prove in reality so fair as in description. I learned, on taking my place at the convivial board, that I had the honour of sitting with no fewer than three Barons, Privy Councillors, superior employés in the Government, and some military officers. My informant, who presided at the table, and who was master of the inn, introduced me to those who sat nearest. I first addressed one, then another, and at last a third, with the usual introductory observations of strangers willing to enter into conversation; but to no effect. Either my German was unintelligible, or my French too much for them; for I tried both languages.' (Why did the Doctor not try Italian?) The replies were mono