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den to be pronounced, provided it was with due rev
Exod. iii. 15. Jehovah, God of your fathers....... this is my name for ever, and this is iny memorial.' xx, 7. 6thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain.' Again, it occurs pronounced, 1 Kings xvii. 12. as Jehovah thy God liveth,' and so in many other places.
This name both in the New Testament and in the Greek version of the Old is always translated Kúgios—the Lord,—probably for no other reason than because the word Jehovah could not be expressed in Greek letters. Its signification is, he who is,' or, which is, and which was, and which is to come,' Rev. i. 4. Jah, which is a sort of contraction of the former name, has the same signification. Exod. xvii. 16. ^ Jah hath sworn'-and in other places. Exod. ii. 14. 177/78 Ehie, I am that I am,' or · will be ;'* and if the first person be changed into the third of the kindred verb, Jave, who is, or will be,-meaning the same
* The original of this passage presents considerable difficulty. It is thus written in the manuscript : «Cap. iii. 14. 777 Ehie, qui sum vel ero, et persona prima in tertiam affinis verbi mutatur Jehovæ, qui est vel erit, idem quod Jehova, ut quidam putant illisque vocabulis rectius prolatum.' In the translation I have considered Ehie qui sum vel ero, as an absolute sentence; and conceiving the next clause to have been incorrectly transcribed, I have rendered it as if it had been writtenet si persona prima in tertiam affinis verbi mutatur, Jave, qui est, vel erit, &c. Simon in his Hebrew Lexicon has the following remark on
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nomen proprium Dei, a Mose demum in. troductum, eum qui re præstiturus sit, quod olim promiserit
, ex ipsa loci Mosaici authentica explicatione, Exod. iii. 14. significans, adeoque 777. vel 17.1/7. proprie efferendum, ut ex veteribus Theodoretus et Epiphanius Jahe, h. e. Jave scripserunt. If the sense of the passage bas been rightly conceived, the kindred verb will be 7177 sidit, fuit vel factus est. See Simon in voce. See also Buxtorf's Lexicon ad Rad. 0717 and Cappelli Vindic. Arcani Punctuationis, lib. 1. $, 20. VOL. I.
יְהוֹה) : יְהוֹה the word
as Jehovah, as some think, and more properly expressed thus than by the other words; but the name Jave appears to signify not only the existence of his nature, but also of his promises, or rather the completion of his promises; whence it is said, Exod. vi. 3. by my name Jehovah was I not known to them.' And with what vowel points this name Jehovah ought to be pronounced, is shown by those proper names into the composition of which two of them enter, as Jehosaphat, Jehoram, Jehoiada, and the like. The third, or final vowel point may be supplied by analogy from the two other divine names,
.יָה and אֲדנָי
I. The first of the attributes which show the inherent nature of God, is Truth. Jer. x. 10. “Jehovah is the true God.' John xvii. 3. that they might know thee the only true God.' 1 Thess. i. 9. “the living and true God.' 1 John v. 20. that we may know him that is true.'
II. Secondly, God, considered in his most simple nature, is a Spirit. Exod. iii. 14, 15. •I am that I am.' Rom. xi. 36. .of him and through him are all things.' John iv. 24. · God is a spirit. What a spirit is, or rather what it is not, is shown, Isai. xxxi. 3. • flesh, and not spirit.' Luke xxiv. 39. 6a spirit hath not flesh and bones.' Whence it is evident that the essence of God, being in itself most simple, can admit no compound quality; so that the term hypostasis, Heb. i. 3.* which is differently translated substance, or subsistence, or person, can be nothing else but that most perfect essence by which God subsists by himself, in himself, and through himself. For neither substance nor subsistence make any
xapaxting oñs izostacíws avroũ. the express image of his person. Authorized Transl. exact image of his substance. Mackuight. Concerning the word ÚTortadíws, rendered in our Bibles, person, it hath been observed by commentators, that it did not obtain that signification till after the Council of Nice. Our translators have rendered úrórrac15, Heb. si. 1. by the word substance.' Mackn. in loc.
addition to what is already a most perfect essence ; and the word person in its later acceptation signifies any individual thing gifted
with intelligence, while hypostasis denotes not the ens itself, but the essence of the ens in the abstract. Hypostasis, therefore, is clearly the same as essence, and thus many of the Latin commentators * render it in the passage already quoted. Therefore, as God is a most simple essence, so is he also a most simple subsistence.
III. Immensity and Infinity.t 1 Kings viii. 27. the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee.' Job xi. 8. it is as high as heaven ...... deeper than hell.' xxxvi. 26. God is great, and we know him not.
IV. Eternity. It is universally acknowledged that nothing is eternal, strictly speaking, but what has neither beginning nor end, I both which properties are attributed to God, not indeed in each of the fol
Imago essentia ejus. Tremellius.
+ Thee, Father, first they sung Omnipotent,
Ithmutable, Immortal, Infinite,
Paradise Lost, III. 372. Another expression of great beauty is used in Samson Agonistes to denote the same attribute :
As if they would confine the Interminable,
307. The disputes among the schoolmen respecting the proper definition of eternity could not have been forgotten by Milton. It appears therefore that at this time the famous definition of Boëthius was generally rejected-eler. ' nitas est interminabilis vitæ tola simul et perfecta possessio. According to these terms God would not necessarily have been without a beginning.
lowing passages separately, but as a plain deduction from the several texts when compared together. Job xxxvi. 26. neither can the number of his years be searched out.' Gen. xxi. 33. “the everlasting God,' literally, the God of old time or ages.
Psal. xc. 2. • from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God, or from age to age.' cii. 12. • but thou, O Jehovah, shalt endure for ever.' v. 24. “thy years are through all generations.' v. 27. but thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end.' Psal. cxlv. 13. “thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom.' Isai. xliii. 10. before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. xliv. 6. 'I am the first, and I am the last.' Habak. i. 12. "art thou not from everlasting,' literally · from old time.'
The evidence of the New Testament is still clearer, because the Greek word signifies to exist for ever. Rom. vi. 26. .according to the commandment of the everlasting God.' 1 Tim. i. 17. unto the King eternal.' Rev. i. 4. from him which is, and which was, and which is to come.'
But all the words used in Scripture to denote eternity, often signify only of old time, or antiquity. Gen. vi. 4. "mighty men which were of old.' Job xx. 4.
knowest thou not this of old, or from etenity, since man was placed upon earth ?' Isai. xlii. 14. - 1 have long time holden my peace.' David also seems to have understood that the term for ever only intimated a great while to come. 2 Sam. vii. 13. I
* Sic etiam Deus dicitur qui est, qui erat, et qui futurus est, Apoc. i. 8. et iv. 8. Deo tamen ævum sive æternitas, non tempus, attribui solet: quid autem est ævum proprie, nisi duratio perpetua, Græce, aiùs, quasi úsì iv, semper esistens.' Artis Logicæ plenior Institutio, &c. Prose Works, VI. 224.
will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever," compared with v. 19. thou hast spoken also of thy servant's house for a great while to come.' See also 1 Chron. xvii. 12, 14, 17. John ix. 32. since the world began was it not heard that any man opened the eyes of one that was born blind.' Acts iii. 21. · which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.' 2 Tim. i. 9. and Tit. i. 2. before the world began :' and in Heb. xi. 3. the word is also used to signify this world, where the Syriac version translates it,- before the worlds were framed.' From these and many similar texts it appears that the idea of eternity, properly so called, is conveyed in the Hebrew language rather by comparison and deduction than in
V. The Immutability of God has an immediate connection with the last attribute. Psal. cii. 27. 6 but thou art the same.' Mal. iii. 6. I am Jehovah, I change not.' James i. 17. (with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning.
VI. His Incorruptibility is also derived from the fourth attribute. Psal. cii. 26. thou shalt endure.' Rom. i. 23. the uncorruptible God. 1 Tim. i. 17. • unto the King immortal.'*
VII. The next attribute of God, his Omnipresence, arises from his infinity. Psal. cxxxix. 8, 9. if I ascend up into heaven, thou art there,' &c. &c. Prov. xv. 3. the eyes of Jehovah are in every place.' Jer. xxiii. 24. do not I fill heaven and earth?' Eph. iv. 6. • who is above ail, and through
i@lapta incorruptibili. Tremellius. qui non corrumpitur. Beza.