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CHAPTER XVIII.

RITES AND CEREMONIES.

Religious Rites: their purpose practical or symbolic-Prayer : its

continuity from low to high levels of Culture ; its lower phases

Unethical ; its higher phases Ethical—Sacrifice : its original Gift-

theory passes into the Homage-theory and the Abnegation-theory

- Manner of reception of Sacrifice by Deity-Material Transfer

to elements, fetish-animals, priests ; consumption of substance

by deity or idol ; offering of blood ; transmission by fire ; incense

- Essential transfer : consumption of essence, savour,

&c.

Spiritual Transfer : consumption or transmission of soul of offer-

ing-Motive of Sacrificer— Transition from Gift-theory to Homage-

theory: insignificant and formal offerings ; sacrificial banquets-

Abnegation-theory ; sacrifice of children, &c. -Sacrifice of Sub-

stitutes : part given for whole ; inferior life for superior ; effigies

- Modern survival of Sacrifice in folklore and religion-Fasting,

as a means of producing ecstatic vision ; its course from lower

to higher Culture—Drugs used to produce ecstasy-Swoons and

fits induced for religious purposes—Orientation : its relation to

Sun-myth and Sun-worship; rules of East and West as to burial

of dead, position of worship, and structure of temple-Lustration

PRIMITIVE CULTURE.

CHAPTER XII.

ANIMISM (continued).

Doctrine of Soul's Existence after Death ; its main divisions, Transmigra

tion and Future Life—Transmigration of Souls: re-birth in Human and Animal Bodies, transference to Plants and Objects—Resurrection of Body: scarcely held in savage religion-Future Life: a general if not universal doctrine of low races-Continued existence, rather than Immortality; second death of Soul-Ghost of Dead remains on earth, especially if corpse unburied; its attachment to bodily remains-Feasts of the Dead.

HAVING thus traced upward from the lower levels of culture the opinions of mankind as to the souls, spirits, ghosts, or phantoms, considered to belong to men, to the lower animals, to plants, and to things, we are now prepared to investigate one of the great religious doctrines of the world, the belief in the soul's continued existence in a Life after Death. Here let us once more call to mind the consideration which cannot be too strongly put forward, that the doctrine of a Future Life as held by the lower races is the all but necessary outcome of savage Animism. The evidence that the lower races believe the figures of the dead seen in dreams and visions to be their surviving souls, not only goes far to account for the comparative universality of their belief in the continued existence of the soul after the death of the body, but it gives the key to many of their speculations on the nature of this existence, speculations

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rational enough from the savage point of view, though apt to seem far-fetched absurdities to moderns in their much changed intellectual condition. The belief in a Future Life falls into two main divisions. Closely connected and even largely overlapping one another, both world-wide in their distribution, both ranging back in time to periods of unknown antiquity, both deeply rooted in the lowest strata of human life which lie open to our observation, these two doctrines have in the modern world passed into wonderfully different conditions. The one is the theory of the Transmigration of Souls, which has indeed risen from its lower stages to establish itself among the huge religious communities of Asia, great in history, enormous even in present mass, yet arrested and as it seems henceforth unprogressive in development; but the more highly educated world has rejected the ancient belief, and it now only survives in Europe in dwindling remnants. Far different has been the history of the other doctrine, that of the independent existence of the personal soul after the death of the body, in a Future Life. Passing onward through change after change in the condition of the human race, modified and renewed in its long ethnic course, this great belief may be traced from its crude and primitive manifestations among savage races to its establishment in the heart of modern religion, where the faith in a future existence forms at once an inducement to goodness, a sustaining hope through suffering and across the fear of death, and an answer to the perplexed problem of the allotment of happiness and misery in this present world, by the expectation of another world to set this right.

In investigating the doctrine of Transmigration, it will be well first to trace its position among the lower races, and afterwards to follow its developments, so far as they extend in the higher civilization. The temporary migration of souls into material substances, from human bodies down to morsels of wood and stone, is a most important part of the lower psychology. But it does not relate to the continued

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