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out and negle&ted./ Now tho the Misfortunes that have befallen our Commonwealth are commonly attributed to our Civil Dissentions, I found upon Enquiry these are not so properly to be called the Cause as the Beginning of our Mischiefs. And Polybius, that grave judici:ous Historian, teaches us in the first place to distinguish the Beginning from the Cause of any Accident. Now I affirm the Cause to have

been that great Blow which our Constitution *Lewis the received about 100 Years ago from that *

Prince who ('tis manifeft) first of all broke in upon the noble and solid Institutions of our Ancestors. And as our natural Bodies when put out of joint by violence, can never be recover'd but by replacing and restoring every Member to its true position, so neither can we reasonably hope our Commonwealth shou'd be restor d to Health, till through Divine Asistance it shall

be put into its true and natural State again. ' . And because your Highness has always ap

prov'd your self a true Friend to our Courtrey;1 thought it my Duty to inscribe, or as it were to consecrate this Abstract of our History to your Patronage. That being guarded by so powerful a Protection, it might with greater Authority and Safety come abroad in the World. Farewell,most Illustrious Prince; May the great God Almighty for ever bless and prosper your most noble Family.

Your Highness's most Obedients' 12 Kal. Sep.

· Francis Hotoman. 1574.


| C H A P. I. The State of Gaul, before it was

Reduced into a Province by the

TY Design being to give an Account of

the Laws and Ordinances of our Francogallia, as far as it may tend to the

Service of our Commonwealth, in its present Circumstances; I think it proper, in the first place, to set forth the State of Gaul, before it was reduced into the Form of a Province by the Romans : For, what Cæfar, Polybius, Strabo, Ammianus, and other Writers have told us concerning the Origin, Antiquity & Valour of that People, the Nature and Situation of their Country, and their private Customs, is fufficiently known to all Men, tho' but indifferently Learned.

We are therefore to understand, that the State of Gaul was such at that time, that neither was the whole under the Government of a


* Civitas, a single Person: Nor were the particular * CommonCommon- wealths under the Dominion of the Populace, or wealch.

the Nobles only; but all Gaul was so divided into Commonwealths, that the most part were Govern'd by the Advice of the Nobles; and these were called Free; the rest had Kings: But every one of them agreed in this Institute, that at a certain time of the Year a publick Council of the whole Nation should be held; in which Council, whatever seem'd to relate to the whole Body of the Commonwealth, was appointed and establish’d. Cornelius Tacitus, in his 3d Book, reckons Sixty-four Civitates; by which is meant (as Cæfar explains it) so many Regions or Diftricts; in each of which, not only the same Language, Manners and Laws, but also the same Magistrates were made use of. Such, in many places of his History, he principally mentions the Cities of the Edui, the Rhemi and Arverni to have been. And therefore Dumnorix the Æduan, when Cæfar sent to have him lain, began to resist, and to defend himself, and to implore the Assistance of his Fellow-Citizens ; often crying out, That he was a Freeman, and Member of a Free Commonwealth, lib. 5. cap. z.

To the like purpose Strabo t'Aerscregli vezes no prav ai writes in his Fourth Book ti wcss on the Tonit Hãy. 'eva o Most of their Commonwealths áruóva iføvlo rat' culoulov. To Trohaiòy, as dan tus o's

“ (says he) were Govern'd by To ne moves into a mantosis

" the Advice of the Nobles": 07E H'xvulo spazudós. “ but every rear thèy ancient

« ly chose a Magistrate; as allo of the People chose a General to manage their « Wars. The like Cafar, lib. 6. cap. 4. writes in these Words: “ Those Commonwealths which So are esteem'd to be under the best Admini

ftration, have made a Law, that if any

be éve and writes in his purpose

of the Peos The like chore common Welt Adm

chores Lear the

in there, the shore

ç Man Man chance to hear a Rumor or Report a“ broad among the Bordering People, which

concerned the Commonwealth, he ought to inform the Magistrates of it, and communicate it to no body else. The Magistrates conceal what they think proper,and acquaint the Mul

titude with the rest: For of Matters relating “ to the Community, it was not permitted to any “ Person to talk or discourse, but in Council, Now concerning this Common-Council of the whole Nation, we shall quote these few Passages out of Cæsar. " They demanded (says he) « lib. 1. cap. 12. a General Council of all Gallia to “ be fummon'd; and that this might be done " by Casar's consent. Also, lib. 7. cap. 1 2.--“ a Council of all Gallia was summond to meet

at Bibra&te; and there was a vast Concourse " from all Parts to that Town.--- And lib. 6.

cap. I.--- Cæsar having summon'd the Council “ of Gaul to meet early in the Spring, as he

had before determin'd: Finding that the

Senones, Carnutes and Treviri came not when © all the rest came, he adjourned the Council “ to Paris. And, lib. 7. cap. 6. speaking of Vercingetorix, “He promis'd himself, that he “ shou'd be able by his Diligence to unite such “ Commonwealths to him as dissented from the

rest of the Cities of Gaul, and to Form a General Council of all Gallia ; the Power of which, the whole World should not be able to withstand.

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Now concerning the King's which ruled over certain Cities in Gallia, the same Author makes mention of them in very many places :

out of which this is particularly worthy our zy: Observation ; That it was the Romans Custom

C 2

to caress all those Reguli whom they found proper for their turns: That is, such as were busy Men, apt to embroil Affairs, and to low Dissentions or Animofities between the several Cornmonwealths. There they joyned with in Friendship and Society, and by most honourable publick Decrees called them their Friends and Confederates : and many of these Kings purchased at a great Expence this Verbal Honour from the Chief Men of Rome. Now the Gauls called such, Reges, or rather Reguli, which were chosen , not for a certain term, (as the Magistrates of the Free Cities were) but for their Lives; tho' their Territories were never so small and inconsiderable : And these, when Customs came to be changed by Time, were afterwards called by the Names of Dukes, Earls and Marquisles. : Of the Commonwealths or Cities, some were much more potent than others; and upon these the lefser Coinmonwealths depended; these they put themselves under for Protection : Such weak Cities Cæfar sometimes calls the Tributaries and Subjects of the former ; but, for the. most part he says, they were in Confederacy with them. Livius writes, lib. 5. that when Tarquinius Priscus reigned in Rome, the Bituriges had the principal Authority among the Celt &, and gave a King to them. When Cæfar first enter'd Gaul, A. U.C. 695, he found it divided into two Factions; the Adui were at the Head of the one, the Arverni of the other, who'many Years contended for the Superiority : But that which greatly increas'd this Contention, was, Because the Bituriges, who were next Neighbours to the Arverni, were yet in fide do imperio ; that is, Subjeđts and Allies to the dui.' On


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