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words literis Græcis in that place, are not to be taken for Writing Greek, but only for the Characters of the letters; I can less approve of this Explanation than the former ; because tho' many ancient Writers (as we juft now said ) frequently used the expression Uti litteris for Scribere; yet I never observ'd that any of them ever used it to signify the forms and fashions of the Characters. Neither does it make at all for their opinion what Cæfar fays in the First Book of his Commentaries ; viz. That there were found in the Helvetian Camp, Tablets ; literis Græcis confcriptas; as if the same person, who had learnt to make use of the Greek forms of Charačlers, might not as easily have learnt the Greek language; or as if there might not be among the Helvetii, Priests or Gentlemens Sons, who might then have learnt Greek, as our's now learn Latin; Greek being at that time a Language in vogue and esteem. The very neighbourhood of the School of Massilia is sufficient to confute that opinion: And therefore Cæfar, when he speaks of his own Letter to Cicero, tells us, he sent that Letter written in Greek characters, left (in case it were intercepted) his designs shou'd he discover'd by the enemy. Justinus, lib. 20. says, there was a Decree of the Senate made that no Carthaginian, after that time, shou'd ftudy the * Greek language or writing, left he shou'd be able to speak or write to the Enemy without an Interpreter. Tacitus, in his Book de moribus Germanorum, tells us, that several Tombs and Monuments were yet to be seen in the Confines of Germany and Swisserland with Greek Inscriptions on them. Livius, lib.9. fays, The Roman Boys formerly studied the Tuscan Lan. guage, às now they do the Greek. And in his
* Grecas liseras.
28th Book, ----- “. Hanibal erected an Altar, “ and dedicated it with a large Inscription of « all his Archievements, in the Greek and Punick “ Tongues. · Item Lib. 40. Both Altars had “ Inscriptions on them in the Greek and Latin " Tongues. Lastly, I cannot imagine, that Cæfar wou'd have expressed himself, (if he had meant, as these wou'd have him ) Græcis literis Scriberes; but rather, Græcarum literarum forma, as we fee in Tacitus, Lib. II. “ Novas literarum “C! formas addidit. He added new Characters of “ Letters: Having found, that the Greek Lite“. rature was not begun and perfected at once. And again --- “ Et formæ literis latinis quee veter“ rimis Græcorum, &c.'"
Now left any body shou'd wonder, how the Word Grecis crept into Cæsar's Text, I will in-' ftance you the like Mifchance in Pliny, lib. 7. cap. 57. where 'tis thus written, ---- “ Gentium “ consensus tacitus primum omnium confpiravit ut “IONUM literis uterentur. And afterwards, ----:" Sequens gentium consensus in tonforibus fuit. And again, ---- “ Tertius Consensus est in Horarum “ observatione. Now who is there that fees' not plainly the Word IONUM ought to be left out, as well because 'tis' apparently unnecessary; (for Pliny had no farther Design than to let us know, that Men first of all consented in the Writing and Form of their Letters ) as because 'tis false , that the Ionian Letters were the first invented; as Pliny himself in his foregoing Chapter, and Tacitus, lib. 11. have told us. I have observed however two Places, (Gregorius Turonensis, lib. 5. and Aimoinus, lib. 3. cap. 41.) wherein 'cis intimated, that the Gauls used the Forms of the Greek Letters : For where they fpeak of King Chilperick, ----" He added (fay
they) “ some Letters to our Letters; and those “ were, w, 4, 5, e; and sent Epistles to the se“ veral Schools in his Kingdom, that the Boys “ shou'd be so taught. Aimoinus mentions only three Letters, X, 8, p. But we must understand, that these were Franks, not. Gauls; or rather Franco-gauls, who made use of their own native Language, the German Tongue; not that ancient Language of the Gauls, which had grown out of use under the Roman Government: Besides, if the Francogalli had made use of the Greek Letters, how came they at first to except these, when they made use of all the rest? But we have said enough, and too much of this Matter. As for their Opinion who believe that the Gauls spoke the German Language, Cæfar confutes it in that single place, wherein he tells us, that Ariovistus, by Reason of his long Conversation in Gallia, spoke the Gallick Tongue.
Now for two Reasons their Opinion seems to me to be the most probable, who write, that the Ancient Gauls had a peculiar Language of their own, not much differing from the British : First, because Cæfar tells us it was the Custom for those Gauls who had a mind to be thoroughly instructed in the Learning of the Druyds; to pass over into Britain ; and since the Druyds made no use of Books, 'tis agreeable to Reason, that they taught in the same Language which was used in Gallia. Secondly, because Tacitus in his Life of Agricola, writes, that the Language of the Gauls and Britains differ'd but very little : neither does that Conjecture of Beatus Rhenanus feem unlikely to me, who believes the Languge which is now made use of in Basse Bretayne [ Britones Britonantes ] to be
the Remains of our ancient Tongue. His Reasons for this Opinion may be better learn'd fron his own Commentaries, than told in this place. 'The Language which we at present make use of, may easily be known to be a Compound of the several Tongues of divers Nacions: And ( to speak plainly and briefly ) may be divided into four parts. One half of it we have from the Romans, as every one that understands Latin ever so little, may observe : For besides, that the Gauls being subject to the Romans, wou'd naturally fall into their Customs and Language, 'tis manifest that the Romans were very industrious to propagatecheir Tongue, and to make it universal, and (as it were) vem nerable among all Nations. And to that end settled Publick Schools up and down, at Autan, Besancon, Lyons, &c. as Valerius Maximus, Tacia tus, and Ausonius tell us. The other half of it may be subdivided thus. One third of it we hold from the Ancient Gauls, another from the Franks, and the last from the Greek Language; For it has been demonstrated long since by many Authors, that we find innumerable Frank (that is, German). Words (as we shall hereafter prove) in our daily Speech. And several learned Men have shewn us, that many Greek Words are adapted to our common use, which we do not owe to the Learning and Schools of the Druyds, (who I believe spoke no Greek); but to the Schools and Conversation of the Mafsilians, whom we formerly mentioned.
CHA P. III. The State of Gaul, after it was redu
ced into the Form of a Province by the Romans.
TIS very well known to all learned Men,
1 that Gaul, after having been often attempted with various Success, during a ten Years War, and many Battels, was at last totally subdued by Cæsar, and reduced into the Form of a Province. It was the misfortune of this most valiant and warlike People, to submit at length, to the Great Beast, as it is called in Scripture, with which however they so strove for Empire for eight hundred Years, (as Hosephus informs us ) that no Wars with any other Nation, so much terrified Rome. And Plutarch in his Lives of Marcellus and Camillus ; Appian in his ad Book of the Civil Wars; Livius, lib.8.
10. have recorded, that the Romans were so afraid of the Gauls, that they made a Law, whereby all the Dispensations (formerly granted to Priests and old Men, from serving in their Armies) were made yoid, in Case of any Tumult or Danger arising from the Gauls: which Cicero takes notice of in his ad Philippick. Cæfar himfelf in his 6th Book, and after him Tacitus, lib. de moribus Germanorum, do testify, That there was a time wherein the Gauls excell'd the Germans in Valour, and carried the War into their Territories, settling Colonies (by reason of their great Multitudes of People) beyond the Rbine.