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bles, And there is no doubt of it, after Charles's death, Lewis his Son administred the Kingdom upon the fame terms and conditions. For the Appendix to Aimoinus, lib. 5. cap. 1o. tells us, that when Charles was dead, Lewis the Empe. peror, thro' a certain kind of Foreknowledge, summon’d the General Council of his people to meet at Doue , near the Loire. And again, cap. 38. where he makes mention of the Articles of Peace, concluded between King Lewis and his Cousin Lewis,“ ---- They summoned, “ says he, a PLACITUM, and in that PLACITUM, by the Advice and Consent of their “ faithful Subjects, they agreed to observe and

keep the Articles which follow. In which " Placitum it was also by common Consent « found convenient, that both Kings should “ return with a Guard [ redirent cum scarà ] “ . Also cap. 41. where he speaks of CarLoman the Son of Lewis the Stammerer, ---" And “só (says he) he departed from the Normans, “ and returned to Wormbs, where he was on « the Kalends of November to bold bis Placitum. --- Also in the following Chapter, where he speaks of Charles, the Simple, -- " Whose " Youth (says he ) the great Men of France “ thinking unfit for the Administration of the “ Government, they held a Council concerning « the State of the Nation.

; But it wou'd be an infinite Labour, and indeed a superfluous one, to quote all the Instances which might be given of this Matter ; from what we have already produced, I think 'tis apparent to every Man, that till Charles the Simple's Reign, that is, for more than 550 Years, the Judgment and Determination of all the weighty Affairs of the Commonwealth, be


of the whoblick Conventi that the

Jonged to the great Assembly of the People, or (as we now call it) to the Convention of the Estates; And that this Institution of our Ancestors was esteem'd sacred and inviolable during so many Ages. So that I cannot forbear admiring the Confidence of some Modern Authors, who have had the Face to publish in their Writings, That King Pipin was the first to whom the Inftitution of the Publick Council is owing. Since Eguinartbus, Charles the Great's own Chancellor, has moft clearly proved, that it was the corftant Practice of the whole Merovingian Line, to hold every Year the Publick Convention of the People on the Kalends of May; and that the Kings were carried to that Assembly in a Chariot, or Waggon drawn by Oxen. .. '

But to come to a Matter of greater Confequence, wherein the Prudence and Wisdom of in, our Ancestors does most clearly shew it self. Is it not apparent how great and manifest a Distinction they made between the King and the Kingdom? For thus the Case stands. The King is one Principal Single Perfom ; but the Kingdom is the whole Body of the Citizens and Subje&ts. “And Ulpian defines him to be a

Traytor, who is stirred up with a Hostile “Mind against the Commonwealth, or against “the Prince. And in the Saxon Laws, Tit. 3. stis written, Whosoever shall contrive any

thing against the Kingdom, or the King of " the Franks, shall lose his Head. --- And again, © The King has the same Relation to the King“ dom that a Father has to his Family; a Tu" tor to his Pupil ; a Guardian to his Ward ; a 75 Pilot to his Ship,or a General to his Army.--As therefore a Pupil is not appointed for the fake of his Tutor, nor a Ship for the sake of


the Pilot, nor an Army for the sake of a Ge neral, but on the contrary, all these are made such for the sake of those they have in charge: Even so the People is not designed for the sake of the King ; but the King is fought out and instituted for the People's fake. For a People can subsist without a King, and be governed by its Nobility, or by it Self. But 'tis even impossible to conceive a Thought of a King without a People. Let us consider more Differences between them. A King as well as any private Person is a Mortal Man. A Kingdom is perpetual, and consider'd as immortal; as Civilians

use to say, when they speak of Corporations, 1 and aggregate Bodies. A King may be a Fool

or Madman, like our Charles VI, who gave away his Kingdom to the English: Neither is there any sort of Men more easily cast down from a sound State of Mind , through the Blandishments of unlawful Pleasures and Luxury. But a Kingdom has within it self a perpetual and sure Principle of Safety in the Wildom of its Senators, and of Persons well skilld in Affairs. A King in one Battel, in one Day may be overcome, or taken Prisoner and carried away Captive by the Enemy ; as it happen’d to St. Lewis, to King Fobn, and to Francis the First. But a Kingdom, though it has lost its King remains entire ; and immediately upon such a Misfortune a Convention is call'd, and proper Remedies are fought by the chief Men' of the Nation against the present Mischiefs : Which we know has been done upon like Accidents. A King, either through Infirmities of Age, or Levity of Mind, may not only be misled by some covetous, rapacious or lustful Counsellor; may not only be seduced and de


praved by debauch'd Youths of Quality, or of equal Age with himself; but may be infatuated by a silly Wench, so far as to deliver and fling up the Reins of Government wholly into her Power. Few Persons, I suppose, are ignorant how many sad Examples we have of these Milchiefs : But a Kingdom is continually supplied with the Wisdom and Advice of the grave Perfons that are in it. Solomon, the wiseft of Mankind, was in his old Age seduced by Harlots; Rehoboam,by young Men; Ninus, by his own Mother Semiramis ; Ptolomæus sirnamed Auletes, by Harpers andPipers. Our Ancestors left to their Kings the Choice of their own Privy-Counsellors who might advise them in the Management of their private Affairs; but such Senators as were to consult in common, and take care of the publick Administration, and instruct the King in the Government of his Kingdom, they reserved to the Designation of the Publick" Convention.

In the Year 1356: after King John had been taken Prisoner by the English, and carried into England, a Publick Council of the Kingdom was held at Paris. And when some of the King's Privy-Counsellors appeared at that Convention, they were commanded to leave the Assembly; and it was openly declared, that the Deputies of the Publick Council wou'd meet no more, if those Privy-Counsellors shou'd hereafter presume to approach that Sanctuary of the Kingdom. Which Instance is recorded in the Great Chronicle writ in French, Vol. 2. sub rege Johanne, fol. 169. Neither has there ever yer been any Age wherein this plain distinction between a King, and a Kingdom, has not been observed. The King of


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the Lacedemonians (as Xenophón afsures us) and the Ephori, renewed every Month a mutual Oath between each other; the King swore that he wou'd govern according to the written Laws and the Ephori swore that they wou'd preserve the Royal Dignity, provided he kept his Oath. Cicero, in one of his Epistles to Brutus, writes : © Thou knowest that I was always of opinion,

that our Commonwealth ought not only to “ be deliver'd from a King, but even from King© fhip. Scis mihi femper placuisse non Rege

folùm, fed Regno liberari rempublicam. Also in his Third Book de Legibus - “ But be« cause a Regal State in our Commonwealth,

once indeed approved of, was abolish'd, not « so much upon the account of the Faults of

a Kingly Government, as of the Kings who “ governed ; it may seem that only the Name 6 of a King was then abolish'a, dc. ; !


CHAP. XVI. of the Capevingian Race; and thë

Manner of its obtaining the King

dom of Francogallia. I T has been already shewn, that the KingI dom of Francogallia continued in Three Families only, during One Thousand Two Hun. dred Years. Whereof the first was called the Merovingian Family. The second, the Carlovingian, from the Names of their Founders or Beginners. For altho? (as we have often told you )


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