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ble to use words of very rare occurrence, or such as belonged only to the earlier or later age, or to some one species of composition. In the Latin lexicon of Freund this work has been done with a degree of research which no previous lexicographer has brought to the subject.

The value of this lexicon would have been increased, if the construction of words had been more fully given, particularly the cases which they govern. The constructions are given in the case of very many words, while in others they are omitted. It is true, that the grammar is expected to give the general rules of construction; but then they can be only general rules. It would be impossible for a grammar, suitable for use in our schools and colleges, to examine the construction of every word. It can only group together words of a common signification, and say that words of this or that signification have a particular construction. The student learns from his grammar, that "verbs of hearing govern the genitive. The first meaning of axooάouai is to hear; he will of course place a genitive after it. But the third meaning is to obey, and the rule of the grammar is that verbs of this signification govern the dative; accordingly he would be most likely to use the dative with the verb in this sense, which would be incorrect. The same difficulty could be illustrated by many other words, all of which would go to show how desirable it is that the lexicon indicate the construction of all words in regard to which there can be any doubt. A good illustration of what we would desire to find more frequently, may be seen in the articles néoμαι, θαυμάζω, πυνθάνομαι and κοιρανέω. The construction of κοι pavéw is thus stated: "Homer does not join it immediately with a case, but either uses it absolutely, or more frequently with xazá and the accusative; Hesiod joins it with the genitive case, Pindar with the accusative, Ap. Rhod. with the dative." This is well, and we wish the same valuable service had been done to such words as άγαμαι, ἀγαπάω, μανθάνω, μελετάω, πειράομαι, etc. Mr. Pickering had evidently studied with much care the antiquities of the Greeks. Of this he gives valuable proofs in almost every part of his lexicon. In connection with the definition of a word, he often explains some usage or custom with which the word is associated, or gives the fashion of some implement, article of dress and the like, all of which enable the student to become more of a Greek, and consequently to understand his author better. See the articles βήμα, γάστρη, δελφίν, ἱππαπαῖ, ἵστος, κάνους, κλητήρ, κόθορνος, κόραξ, and the articles on weights and measures, which are full and accurate.


Select Notices and Intelligence.


The prepositions and particles have received special attention, and the articles on these will be found to meet all the ordinary wants of the student; see άró and xavá, to the last of which thirtyone different significations or relations are given; also ti and μn. The force of prepositions in composition also, are generally well indicated in the definitions, so far as it is possible to express their force by any corresponding English term. We have noticed a few instances, however, where the force of the preposition is not given as it should be. The diminutive force of vnó in vnáуw is not observed; besides the meanings given, it signifies," to lead slowly." Anodio is defined, "to sacrifice," "to offer to the gods a part of the spoil." This word never signifies merely to sacrifice, but has always connected with it the collateral idea of performing a sacrifice which had been previously vowed or promised, hence always to pay a sacrifice.

The oblique cases and principal dialectical or unusual forms of anomalous nouns, adjectives and pronouns, and the principal tenses of anomalous verbs, are given in alphabetical order. This is a very valuable assistance to the younger class of students, who, however thoroughly they may have been trained in the laws of grammatical changes, are often unable to find from what word some of the more irregular forms are derived. The quantity of the doubtful vowels, too, is generally marked, which is a great convenience.

It had been better, if in the Greek passages quoted, reference had not been so often made to the Graeca Majora, as that work is not used to any extent in our colleges, and will soon be entirely inaccessible. The lexicon is designed for the use of schools and colleges, and we know of no one better adapted to meet the wants of such institutions. It will be viewed at home and abroad as an honored legacy of one of the first of American scholars.



CLASSICAL. Recent German editions of Horace. Since the earlier labors of Mitscherlich, Doering and others, many valuable works on Horace have appeared in Germany. The first edition of Orelli, as our classical readers are aware, was published in 1838, and the new edition of Doer

ing by Regel in 1839. The last volume of the work of Düntzner, entitled "The Criticism and Interpretation of Horace," appeared in December, 1845. The work is therefore now complete in five volumes, Vol. I. (1840) containing the Odes, Vol. II. the Satires (1841), Vol. III. the Epistles of the First Book (1843), Vol. IV. the Epistles of the Second Book, and the Ars Poetica (1844), Vol. V. containing Supplements and Corrections, and a complete Register. This work is aesthetic in its character, aiming, as the title-page itself declares, at a deeper understanding of the works of Horace. In the execution of a task so delicate and so difficult, requiring such important and various qualifications, the author has, in the judgment of such men as Jahn and Obbarius, been but partially successful. The first volume, on the odes, has suffered more from criticism than the succeeding ones. The author's arrangement of these celebrated lyric productions, according to general ideas, such as Temperance, Piety, Love, Friendship, etc., has been justly censured as entirely arbitrary, as well as hostile to the style and spirit of Horace and the whole character of the ancient classic poetry. At the same time are acknowledged the learning of the author, his zeal and his genial admiration of his poet, his lively and vigorous style, and his original views on particular points. The Introduction to Volume second, on the origin and spirit of the Roman Satire, furnishes a learned and instructive view of this subject.

Lübker's Horace, published in 1841, embraces only the first three books of the Odes. This author's purpose was not to give a complete commentary, but only to lend his aid in the solution of certain difficult points, with particular reference to Orelli and Regel, whose labors he aims partly to correct and partly to complete. For the grammatical interpretation, this work is of great value. A complete and most valuable Commentary on Horace is furnished in the second edition of Orelli, corrected and enlarged, in two volumes, the first published in 1843 and the second in 1844.

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A smaller work, embracing all the works of Horace, and admirably adapted to the use of schools, by G. Dillenburger, now Director of the Gymnasium in Emmerich, was published in 1844. The notes are not numerous, but yet sufficient and of the right kind; brief and to the point, explaining obscure allusions, and containing references to the Grammar for all difficult points. We observe that this book is honorably mentioned by Orelli; who has also added to his second volume, the Life of Horace, written by Dillenburger, and published in his edition.

In the lists of German works recently published, we notice an edition of the Epistola ad Pisones, by Peerlkamp, and Fasc. 6. of Obbarius' learned work on the Epistles of Horace.

We have received Dr. Moritz Seyffert's edition of Cicero's Laelius, sive de Amicitia Dialogus, in two parts, the first published in 1844 and the second in 1845, forming, with the Text, Commentary and Index, a volume of 598 pp. 8vo. It will be perceived at once that so full a commentary is not designed for the use of schools. It is meant for the private study of the higher scholars in the Gymnasia, and of young philolo


Classical Works.


gists, just entering upon their professional labors as classical teachers. For such a purpose it may well be pronounced a model of interpretation, furnishing with a carefully corrected text, a clear and consecutive view of Cicero's Argument on Friendship, an accurate and thorough examination of all grammatical points, and a full explanation of historical allusions. The detailed discussions in the notes render the work one of great value for the style and language of Cicero, and indeed for the whole subject of later Philology. It is just such a work as might have been anticipated from the author of the "Palaestra Ciceroniana."

In the Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, Nos. 7, 8, 1846, we find a review by Prof. Zeiss of Ruperti's "Manual of Roman Antiquities" This work consists of two parts, each forming an octavo volume, the first devoted to the Roman Territory and the Roman People, aside from its relation to the State, and the second to the Roman State. The reviewer objects to the author's plan, which proposes to consider the Roman people, 1. out of the State, and 2. in the State, on the ground that the whole life of the Romans was so closely connected with the State, that it is quite impossible to discuss them in two separate parts of a work. To illustrate the practical inconvenience of the plan, the reviewer refers at great length to the numerous repetitions in the second part, of subjects discussed in the first.

With the appearance of the 2d Part of Vol. III, embracing the letters Pe-Q, Freund's Latin Lexicon is at length completed. The whole work now consists of 4 vols. large octavo. An abridgment has been published by the author, for the use of schools, in two volumes, octavo. Kiepert's Altas of Greece and of the Hellenic Colonies, referred to on p. 797, Vol. II. of this Journal, is now complete, the third part having just been published.

Prof. W. A. Becker has published a pamphlet on Roman Topography, in reply to Urlichs. See p. 594, Vol. H. of this Journal. In this connection we may mention that Prof. Preller of Jena has published a work on the Regions of the city of Rome, with an accompanying Introductory Essay and Commentary. Since his return from Italy, Prof. Preller seems to have resumed his archaeological labors with increased zeal and activity.

In the Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, Feb. 1846, we find an announcement of a new edition, by J. Casp. Orelli, of the works of Cicero. The work is to be in 4 vols. large octavo, and to be completed within three years. The first and third volumes are already finished. Dr. Kühner has published a second edition of his School Grammar of the Latin language. This grammar is intended to succeed the Elementary Grammar, which has already been translated by Prof. Champlin, and it corresponds in character and the place which it occupies, to the Greek Grammar, translated by Messrs. Edwards and Taylor. We have not yet received the new edition, but we learn, by a private letter from the author, that the work has undergone a thorough revision, and indeed has assumed an entirely new form.

Of other works which have recently appeared on the continent, we mention the following: Real-Encyclopaedie d. class. Alterthumsw. 65

and 66 Lieff., Lex-Livius; Stephani's Greek Thesaurus, edited by Hase and the Dindorfs, Vol. V. fasc. IV—VI, (Paris); Vol. II. of Walter's History of the Roman Law; Welcker's Opuscula, Vol. II.; Suidae Lexicon, revised by Bernhardy, Vol. II. fasc. 7; an edition of Xenophou's Anabasis, by K. W. Krüger; Huschke on the ancient Roman law of Debt; and of the Paris Bibl. Graeca., Vol. XXII, Poetae Bucolici et Didactici, and Vol. XXIII, Isocratis Orationes et Epistolae,

Among the works recently issued in England, we notice the following: Vol. II. of the new edition of Thirlwall's History of Greece; Grote's History of Greece, 2 vols. with maps; Prof. Dahlmann's Life of Herodotus, translated by G. F. Cox; Lexilogus Scholasticus, or Greek and English Vocabulary, by Dr. Bloomfield, 12mo.; Dunbar's Elements of the Greek language, 2d. edition; Giles' English-Greek Lexicon, Royal 8vo. ; and Part 2d of Eastwick's Translation of Bopp's Comparative Grammar. We have received No. 12 of the Classical Museum, to some of the earlier numbers of which we alluded in a former number of this Journal, (Vol. I. p. 610). It is a favorable and a grateful indication of the flourishing condition of classical studies in England, that a Journal of this character has become established on a firm basis, and has taken an independent place in the periodical literature of the country. The Editors of the Museum are Dr. Schmitz and Dr. W. Smith; among the contributors, we notice the names of Prof. Long, Prof. Malden, Mr. Liddell, Lord Francis Egerton, and of several German Professors, Zumpt, Welcker and Bergk. Perhaps the distinguishing features of this Journal is its intelligent and truly independent and original use of the productions of German scholars. Most of the articles which we have read, exhibit the marks of a style of scholarship, and of a philological training and educacation, which are thoroughly German in their character. At the same time, the vigor and clearness, and the sterling good sense of the English mind, are equally manifest. We have been particularly struck with the great merit of a series of articles, not yet complete, on the Topography of Rome. These articles promise to furnish a full and accurate view of this difficult and complicated subject. The writer has manifestly made himself familiar with the recent labors of the German writers, not omitting the minor controversial writings of Becker, Preller, etc., and after duly digesting them, has reproduced them for English use in a most admirable manner. The third article, on the Fora of the Emperors, appears in the last No. now before us. The same No. contains a Review, by Mr. F. W. Newman of Kenrick's and of Stocker's Herodotus, The Religion of the Romans by Zumpt, translated by C. K. Watson, and an account of the Roman Agonalia, by Dr. W. Smith, together with "Miscellanies," and "Notices of Recent Publications." Under the last head, we find a brief but very condemnatory critique of Anthon's Horace and of Anthou's Homer, both reprinted in England, under the editorial care of B. Davies, Ph. D. The writer accuses Prof. Anthon "on three counts:" 1, that "he borrows from accredited works, avowedly, but far beyond the fair bounds of such accommodation ;" 2, that "he appropriates the critical remarks and the information furnished by others without acknowledgment, translating them into his own language;" 3, that "he steals the

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