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revision of his General History.-It is not known when the Life of Schleiermacher by Dr. Jonas of Berlin will appear, as difficulties are experienced in procuring the materials.-Prof. Lepsius of Berlin has been made professor ordinarius of the university there. His theory in relation to Mt. Sinai has been called in question by J. V. Kutscheit. The results of his investigations in Egypt are anxiously expected, though it is probable that they will not quite answer the anticipations at first cherished.-One of the valuable Orthodox journals of Germany is the “ Allgemeines Repertorium” for theological literature, edited by Dr. Hermann Reuter of Berlin, assisted by sixty-three contributors, among whom are Hupfeld of Halle, Beck of Tübingen, Pelt and Liebner of Kiel, Dorner of Königsberg and Wieseler and Berthean of Göttingen. The high Lutheran views in regard to the symbolic books are advocated in the Journal for Protestantism and the Church, edited by Dr. Harless of Leipsic and Profs. Höfling, Thomasius and Hofmann of Erlangen. Profs. Nitzsch and Sack of Bonn, exbibit their views in a “Monatschrift” published in that city. Two of the Roman Catholic professors in Bonn also conduct a periodical.—Dr. Delitzsch of Leipsic has accepted a call to Rostock as professor ordinarius of theology. In the course of this year, a commentary from his pen on the book of Zephaniah will appear.— The second part of Dr. Caspari's Arabic Grammar, including a Chrestomathy, is in press, and will soon be published. The same author is now engaged on some historical and critical investigations on the prophecies of Isaiah and Micah, preparatory to a commentary on those prophets which will appear in the course of the Spring. A second edition of Caspari's commentary on Obadiah is soon to appear, including two treatises on the geography of Idumea and the history of the Edomites. Drs. Delitzsch and Caspari are young men, distinguished for their evangelical views and orthodoxy in the interpretation of the Bible. Evangelical sentiments are also entertained by a number of the younger teachers in the university of Leipsic.— Prof. Julius Wiggers of Rostock has published a History of Evangelical Missions in two Vols. He is author of a statistical work on Christian sects, and son of the writer on Augustinism, and Pelagianism. -The new edition of Luther's works, under the charge of J. C. Irmischer, is advancing to its completion. The 8th vol. of the German Exegetical works and the 17th of the Latin, have appeared. The commemoration of the completion of the 3d century from Luther's death, brought out an almost innumerable number of sermons, pamphlets, biographies, etc. The love and reverence for his name in Germany suffers no diminution, however widely multitudes have deviated from his principles. Those who do not adopt his religious opinions venerate him for his hearty German spirit, and for the benefits which he conferred on the German language and literature. The judgment on Lutber pronounced by the historian Hallam would be regarded in Germany as unworthy of refutation).—Another part of Ritter's great geographical work will soon appear. It will continue the geography of Arabia. The volumes on this peninsula are extremely interesting, containing an bistorical introduction and the geographical relations of the country at the present time. The publication price of the entire work of Dr. Ritter is 1847.

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Notices of Religious and Theological Works,

211

.

504 Thaler, on fine paper 61 Thal. 24 Grosch.—The great Latin Lexicon of Freund enjoys the highest consideration in Germany. A reviewer thus sums up the grounds of its merits; a. Its historico-genetic development of the significations. b. Exact exhibition of archaisms, ancient forms of writing, etc. c. Careful use of old glossaries, lately discovered papyrusrolls, epigraphy, etc. d. Use of the best Mss. e. Full references to the ablest modern writers on Latin gramınar, lexicography, etc. e. g. Döderlein, Hand, Rhein, Zumpt, etc.— The work of Dr. Siegel on Homiletics is not yet completed.–Tauchpitz's stereotyped edition of the Greek and Roman classics now amounts to 210 volumes, price 66 Thaler, about $50. The sale bas been very large, and by the accuracy and cheapness of the work much service has been rendered to classical learning by the excellent publisher. The second part of the Manual of Greek Antiquities by Prof. C. F. Hermann of Göttingen, exhibiting the sacred antiquities of the Greeks, has just been published. It is said to display an exact knowledge of language, comprehensive views, free and independent judgment, etc. The contents of the part now published have a special interest at the present time.

Professor Tholuck of Halle has just published an interesting work under the title, “ Gespräche über die Vornehmsten Glaubensfragen der Zeit, zunächst für nachdenkende Laien, welche Verstandigung suchen." The discussion is carried on in the form of a very animated dialogue, and is designed to meet the wants of reflecting Jaymen, some of whom have been drawn into the views of the so-called friends of light. There are many in Germany who have become dissatisfied with the dead orthodoxy which has long been prevalent in not a few of the pulpits of the land, who feel the want of sometbing more spiritual and earnest and wbo are often inclined to plunge into skepticism. It is this class especially whom Prof. T. addresses, under the heads of Reason and Rationalism, Reason and Faith, Faith and the Scriptures, The latest Progress, Progress and the Symbols, and The newly awakened Faith. Prof. T. promises conditionally a second part, in answer to the question, Who was Christ? This work will be quite attractive to many in Germany and to some in other lands, as it is written in an earnest, impressive and conciliatory manner, and treats of questions which are more or less discussed in all Protestant

countries.

The first volume of the English translation of Hagenbach's History of Christian doctrines has just been published by Mr. Clark of Edinburgh, and forms the third volume of his Foreign Theological Library. The translator is Charles W. Buch, who has lately closed his theological studies at the Lancashire Independent College at Manchester, and is now a resident at Halle. The work appears, from a cursory examination which we have made, to be very well translated, and by its pure and flowing English style, almost forms an exception to the so-called English versions of many German productions. The translator has added references to some of the more useful English and American works in theology. Of Hagenbach we have spoken in another place. A work from a divine so eminent and orthodox as Dr. H. is allowed to be, must be a valuable accession to our theological literature, which has no formal work on the subject.

We learn that the concluding number of Gesenius's Hebrew Thesaurus, under the care of Prof. Rödiger of Halle, is now ready for the press and will be published in April or May. The 3d fasciculus of the Commentary of Beidhavius on the Koran, edited from the Mss. by Prof. Fleischer of Leipsic, is now published. There have lately appeared at Leipsic a Persian Chrestomathy by F. Spiegel and a Manual on the subject of Eastern coins by Prof. Stickel; also vol. 4 of Hand's Tursellinus or Commentaries on the Latin particles; and the 16th part of the 2d edition of Wachsmuth's Grecian Antiquities, completing the work in two volumes.

Prof. Ross of Halle, after thirteen years' residence in Greece has pub lished the first No. of a periodical work, in which he proposes to give from time to time the fruits of his travels in Greece and the results of his studies on her monuments, in the form of artistic, topographical and philological treatises, interspersed with epigraphic contributions. Prof. R. tukes very decided ground in opposition to the skeptical theories of Wolf and Niebuhr, and contends that the monuments and written records and reason are all in favor of a conservative position on this subject, and that the course which those two leaders and their innumerable imitators have pursued, would destroy all faith in any past event and would land us in limited skepticism. “Nature had denied to Niebuhr that strength of character which knows how to employ his faculties in the right place, or education and circumstances had deprived him of this strength. He did not possess the conservative spirit of an historian, but was born to be a revolutionist.” It is also gratifying to see that Bunsen, the pupil and secretary of Niebuhr, in his late work on Egypt, is very far from adopting the skeptical views of his master. “ Already,” he remarks "in the second dynasty of the Egyptian kings, the third of Manetho, the names of kings are indicated by the contemporary monuments. The Egyptians had writings and books in the earliest period in which we have monuments. The pen and the inkstand appear on the monuments of the fourth dynasty, the oldest in the world.

Died at Meissen in Saxony, Sept. 30, 1846, of consumption, after a long illness, W. A. Becker, professor of classical philology at Leipsic and one of the ornaments of the university, well known in England and the United States, for his works on Greek and Roman Antiquities. His very able manual of Roman Antiquities is left incomplete. His conclusions on the subject of the topography of the city of Rome, though fiercely contested, are regarded in Germany as the most satisfactory. On the 26th of Sept. deceased at Berlin Dr. Francis Theremin, court preacher there and honorary professor in the university. He was esteemed as one of the most eloquent preachers in the Prussian church, and was the author of valuable treatises on Homiletics. His last work is on the Eloquence of Paul and Demosthenes. The University of Berlin lost another distinguished professor, last year, in Dr. Philip Marheinecke, well known for his attempts to reconcile Hegelianism to Orthodoxy, and for bis very interesting history of the German Reformation. Ideler, the eminent writer on chronology, also died last year.

1847]

Meeting of the German Oriental Society.

213

The following was the number of students in some of the German
Universities in 1846.
University. Theol. Whole No. Inirersity. Theol. Whole No.
Berlin

279
1608 Würtzburgh 81

464 Munich

298
1407 Jena

106

425 Tübingen 29 80 Königsberg 68

355 Heidelberg 339 Rostock

260 Leipsic 187 Marburg

227 Bonn

213
674 Kiel

205 Halle

457
742 Zurich

159 Giessen

489 Berlin has the greatest number of students; Heidelberg, the largest number of students in law, 562; Halle, in theology, 457. There are 468 law students at Munich. Of the students in theology at Bonn, 68 are Catholics, and of those at Tübingen, 122 are Catholics. The Universities not enumerated above, are those of Basel, Göttingen, Freyberg in the Breisgau, Erlangen, Griefswalde, Breslau, Münster, Prague and Vienna. The following Universities are exclusively Catholic, Vienna, Muvich, Wünburgh, Freyburg, Prague and Münster. The academical year is divided into two terms or semesters, the first opening near the close of October, the last ending about the middle of July. The Universities are supported in part by annual grants from the respective governments under whose jurisdiction they are situated. Few of them are in the possession of any large annount of permanent property, except libraries, cabinets, etc. The University of Leipsic is an exception, which, besides other valuable real estate, owns an entire, large square, near the centre of the city of Leipsic.

The third Meeting of the German Oriental Society was held at Jena from Sept. 28 to Oct. 3. The first meeting of this association was held at Dresden in 1844, and the second at Darmstadt in 1845. The general object of the society is to promote and extend the knowledge of Asia and of the countries in immediate connection with it. It will thus be occupied not merely on oriental antiquities, but upon the modern bistory and preseot condition of the East. This general object will be attained by a collection of oriental books, Mss., coins, etc.; the editing and translating of oriental works; the publication of a periodical; the awakening and sustaining of all endeavors to promote the knowledge of the East; and by friendly correspondence with similar societies and learned individuals in Germany and elsewhere. The Oriental Journal formerly conducted by Ewald, Lassen and others, is now published at Leipsic, under the auspices of the society. The most prominent original founders of the society were Profs. Rödiger and Poti of Halle, Fleischer of Leipsic and Olshausen of Kiel. The objects of the association seem to have awakened a very general interest ainong the hosts of the German literati. About 300 meinbers were present, including some of the most eminent scholars of the land. We may mention the names of Hermann of Leipsic, Böckh, Ranke and Lachmann of Berlin, Rost and Wüstemann of Gotha, Sintenis of Herbst, Grotefend and Kühner of Hanover, Fleischer, Brockbaus, Seyffarth and Wachsmuth of Leipsic, Döderlein of Erlangen, Rödiger and Ross of Halle, Neumann of Munich, Stähelin, Vischer and Gerlach of Basel, Hand, Hoffmann, Göttling and Stickel of Jeva, Berrnstein of

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Breslau, Schneidewin of Göttingen, Bergk of Marburg, etc. The meetings were held in a large hall, which was entirely filled. At the upper end, on the left of the president, were some invited guests and thirty or forty ladies. Adjoining the ball, in a convenient apartment, the orientalists proper beld their sessions, under the presidency of Prof. Hoffnann of Jepa, author of the Syriac Grammar, tbe edition of the Book of Enoch, etc. The proceedings in this room were conducted simultaneously with those in the principal hall. The assembly in the latter consisted of philologists in the general sense, teachers of gymnasia, etc. The president was Professor Hand of Jena, a gentleman of a dignified and somewhat commanding appearance, apparently about sixty years of age, known by his able writings, especially on Latin grammar and lexicography. On the opening of the sessions of the second day Prof. Hand delivered an address. He said that meetings like that of the Oriental Society were not only useful but necessary. Philology was more and more attacked, and its circle circumscribed. Some would reject as useless all minute unvestigations in grammar, though they would advocate the most partic. ular inquiries into plants and minerals. But philology is not confined to these critical inquiries. It would investigate and teach matters of the highest moment to man. He alluded several times with the marked applause of the audience to a printed letter addressed to the meeting by a teacher in a gymnasium, of the name of Matthiae, who following the late example of the Danish king, styled his communication an “open letter.” In it he urged the emancipation of the Germans from their devotion to philological studies and an earnest attention to pursuits and inquiries more in conformity with the spirit of the age. Prof. Hand said he hoped that this letter would share the fate of other open letters. Emancipation was not a German word. The laws in relation to the education of the human mind, like the laws of nature, were unalterable. A passion for what was immediately useful was the disease of our times. This society should be a counterpoise against materialism, ignorance and a craving desire for knowing too much. A Latin Salutatory poem was then read by Candidate Tittmann of Jena. This was followed by an essay from Dr. Köchly, teacher of a gymnasium at Dresden, in which he attempted to show the unity of the Hecuba of Euripides. He characterized briefly the three great tragedians. In Euripides, the pathetic element predominates. He then dwelt on the main design of the Hecuba, the course of thought, the necessity of the prologue, and showed that the different parts were connected by a religious element, and that on the offering of Polyxena the return of the Greeks depended. Hecuba found in this event a moral benefit. At the conclusion some remarks were added by Prof. Müller of Naumberg.

Of the exercises on subsequent days, we may allude to the following. Prof. Piper of Berlin, read an essay on the classical element in Dante, and on bis influence in the revival of learning. Prof. Lindner advocated the opinion, that languages should be studied successively rather than simultaneously. Prof. Fortlage of Jena read a very long and able dissertation on ancient Greek music. The author maintained that he had found in an ancient Greek poet, the true key which would reveal the

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