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Meeting of the German Oriental Society.


character of this music, and settle the long controverted question. The researches of the author will soon be published in a volume. Prof. Döderlein of Erlangen, read a very spirited and witty essay on the character of Thersites in Homer. He contended that the common view of Thersites was a mistake, resting on mistranslations of single words in the original. Not a little Attic salt was sprinkled over this performance, much to the amusement of the audience.

The Oriental Section was opened by Prof. Hoffmann, with a eulogy on Sir Wm. Jones, who was born exactly 100 years ago, i. e. Sept. 28th, 1746. He depicted his most happy classical culture, and his extraordinary knowledge of oriental languages. He was the founder of the first oriental society. Prof. Höfer of Griefswalde gave an account of a hitherto unknown epic poem in the Prakish language. Prof. Kellgren of Helsingfors read a very interesting essay on the relation of the Finnish language to the Turkish, Mongolian, etc. Prof. Bergk of Marburg, on the "Jury" of the ancient Greeks; Prof. Preller, on the "Twelve-god" system of the ancients, particularly of the Athenians, quite instructive; and Prof. Schneidewin of Göttingen, on an alleged bymn to Apollo translated from Greek into Italian, which Profs. Prutz and Rauck endeavored to show to be spurious.

Among the other proceedings, was the taking up of a subscription to defray the expenses of the printing of the translation of the Arabic commentary of Caswini, edited by Wüstenfeld of Göttingen. The next meeting of the Oriental Society is to be held at Basel, about the 1st of Oct. 1847, Profs. Gerlach and Vischer to be presidents, and Dr. De Wette to preside over the Orientalists.

Much of the time of the members was devoted to social intercourse and enjoyment. The public meetings commenced at 9 o'clock A. M., and terminated at 1 P. M. The society then dined together in a large hall. The remainder of the afternoons and evenings was devoted to social calls, concerts, etc. Some of the members were entertained by examining a very fine collection of curiosities, which Prof. Koch of Jena has lately brought home from his travels in the countries bordering on the Black and Caspian seas.

The students of Jena, once characterized for their duelling propensities, are now, it is said, distinguished by their love of ease and social enjoyment. The list of the professors at the present time, contains some eminent names. Among these, in addition to Profs. Hoffmann and Hand already mentioned, are Carl Hase, author of the Church History, Life of Jesus, Hutterus Redivivus, etc., L. J. Rückert, who was made a professor in Jena in 1844, author of the able commentaries on Paul's Epistles, H. K. A. Eichstädt, professor of eloquence and poetry, author of a great number of publications and editor for many years of the Jena Allgem. Litt. Zeit., H. Luden, the well-known historian, author of the History of the Germans and of many other works, C. W. Göttling, the very distinguished philologist, editor of Hesiod, Varro, author of the History of the Roman constitution, etc. and J. G. Stickel, known by his writings on the book of Job. The whole number of teachers in the university is sixty. The university building is without any pretension. The number of

volumes in the library exceeds 150,000. There is also a valuable museum of oriental and other coins. In past times very celebrated men have taught for longer or shorter periods in this university; among whom may be mentioned Solomon Glass, John Gerhard, Schelling, the brothers Schlegel, Fries, Oken, Hufeland, Griesbach, Döderlein, Eichhorn, Feuerbach, etc.

Allen, Morrill and Wardwell have published a beautiful edition of Select Treatises of Martin Luther, in the original German, with Philological notes and an Essay on German and English etymology. The volume is edited by Dr. Sears of Newton, and contains a great amount of critical information, useful alike to the German and the English scholar. We are gratified with the intelligence that the work has already been introduced into some of our literary institutions, as an auxiliary to the study of the German language. It is an important work for clergymen, as it makes them familiar with the writings and the genius of one whose influence on the church has been great and increasing for three centuries, and whose eloquence has never been deservedly appreciated in our own land. We hope to insert a lengthened review of this volume in a future No. of the Bib. Sacra.

The same publishers have in press an edition of Xenophon's Memorabilia, with critical Notes on the basis of the editions of Kühner and Seiffert, by R. D. C. Robbins, Librarian, Andover Theol. Seminary.

The complete Works of the late Dr. Edward Payson have recently been issued from the press of Hyde, Lord and Duren, of Portland, in three volumes. They contain his Sermons, Select Thoughts, an excellent Introductory Notice by Dr. Stowe of Lane Theol. Sem., and the well known and highly valued Memoir of Dr. P. by Rev. Asa Cummings of Portland. No one can read this excellent memoir without feeling an interest in the sermons, and the perusal of the sermons excites a new interest in the memoir. The influence of Dr. Payson upon his hearers was so great and so good, so unlike to that of ordinary clergymen, and so much superior to that which we expect to see often exerted, that an exhibition of the means of his influence cannot fail to interest the religious and intellectual observer. Such an exhibition is given in these beautiful volumes, and we anticipate from them a highly important and a long continued influence upon our churches.





MAY, 1847.



By Prof. B. B. Edwards.

[To the Englishman or American, no University in Germany has so many attractions as that at Halle. It is associated with the fervent zeal and indefatigable labors of the Pietists of the 18th century. It is also the continuation of the establishment at Wittenberg, so memorable in the annals of the Reformation, and which seems to impose a sacred obligation upon the professors at Halle to adhere to the doctrines of Luther and Melanchthon. To this University the world is indebted, for the revival and extension of Hebrew learning in consequence of the studies and labors of Gesenius. Professor Tholuck's name has long been beloved and honored throughout the Christian world. To his fraternal love and unwearied kindness multitudes of Americans delight to bear testimony. To his instrumentality more than perhaps to that of any other man, Germany is indebted for the happy revival of evangelical religion which has prevailed during the last twenty years. His personal influence is great and is most happily coincident with the effect of his numerous writings. His position is the more important as the University at Halle is in fact the theological seminary of northern Germany. It numbers more theological students than any other University in the country, and the majority of its members belong to that department. Its present VOL. IV. No. 14.


corps of teachers enrols many distinguished names; e. g. Hupfeld, the successor of Gesenius, and perhaps the most eminent living Hebraist, Pott and Rödiger, well known for their profound and extensive researches in Oriental literature, Bernhardy, celebrated for his publications relating to Greek literature, Ross, who has lately returned from a long abode in Greece, full of zeal and knowledge, and others to whom we cannot now refer.

Professor Julius Müller, though less known abroad than some other German theologians, is greatly respected at Halle and throughout Germany. As a profound and scientific theologian he has probably no superior among his learned countrymen. Before he came to Halle, he had been connected with the Universities of Marburg and Breslau. His great work is on the Nature of Sin, and is characterized by profound investigation, accurate analysis, comprehensive survey of the entire field and a systematic arrangement of his materials truly German. A second edition of this work, anew investigated and greatly enlarged, was published not long since in two large octavo volumes. It has not yet found an English translator and perhaps will not. A competent version of it would imply in the translator an acquaintance with German theology and philosophy and modes of thinking, which very few Englishmen or Americans possess. An inadequate translation of such a work would be a matter of great regret to the author and his friends. The remaining publications of Prof. M., so far as we are informed, are confined to single sermons and miscellaneous articles and to two volumes of Discourses. The sermons, from which we now propose to translate a few extracts, were printed at Breslau in 1846, in a volume of 355 pages, and are entitled, "Zeugniss von Christo und von dem Wege zu ihm, für die Suchenden," (Testimony in relation to Christ and of the Way to Him, for Inquirers). It consists of a valuable Preface of thirty pages and of thirteen discourses on the following topics: The dignity of man; It is only by regeneration that man can attain the object of his creation; In the divine economy of man's salvation, the manifestation of wrath has its necessary place, but it is only to prepare the way for the revelation of love; The feelings which Christ presupposes in those who would enter into communion with Him; The holiness of Jesus is the proof of the truth of his testimony to his Divine dignity; The atoning work of Christ as the manifestation of the holiness of God; Christ as the fisher of men; Love to Christ as springing from the consciousness of forgiven sin; Three stages of the Christian life; On what rests the


Discourses and Singing in Germany.


anthority of a rule of faith which has always been rendered in the church to the New Testament? In what sense does Christ command us to confess Him before men? In what manner should we take part in existing religious controversies? And the relation between our duties to God and to civil society.

Before we present to our readers a few passages from these sermons, it may not be wholly irrelevant to offer one or two brief Discourses from the pulpit in Germany are, for the most part, addressed to the feelings rather than to the reason. The theologian does not often discuss on the Sabbath the profounder mysteries of his faith. Such discussions are reserved for the lecture-room or the printed page. Discourses like those with which Drs. Hopkins and Emmons, or even Dr. Dwight, edified their auditories, if not quite unknown in Germany, are exceedingly rare. The sermon is often a mere homily, or a mere exposition of a passage of Scripture which occurs in the lessons of the day, or it is a popular illustration of some truth, interspersed or concluded with appeals to the hearers. It is generally level to the capacity of the great mass. It is likewise, for the most part, short. Nothing would be more appalling to a continental audience, or even to one in England, than those protracted discussions, once so common in New England and Scotland, and happily not now wholly discontinued. The length of the discourses, to which the writer of these lines has listened, has varied from twenty minutes to thirty-five. One reason of this brevity is the time which is occupied in singing. In this delightful exercise the whole congregation, without exception, unites. Those who might have been wearied with the sermon, now awake and join in the hymn with the whole heart. The writer can never forget a spectacle of this kind which he saw in one of the old churches in Nuremberg. The great edifice was crowded, one half of the auditors at least standing. The sermon had been delivered in a fervent manner and had apparently much interested the feelings of the audience. Immediately a powerful and well-toned organ sent its peals through all the corners and recesses of the cathedral, and in a moment every adult and child in the vast throng broke forth in praise to the Redeemer, in one of those old hymns, mellowed by time, and which breathe not of earth, but of heaven. The effect, at least upon a stranger, was overpowering. Nothing like it ever can be produced by a small choir, however scientifically trained. The performance of the latter must be comparatively dead, because, being so artistic or scientific, or so modern,

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