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even of indigenous animals and other familiar objects are of Semitic origin; p. 732. 3. That the principal deities of the Egyptians, as well as their designations, are Semitic, p. 737,” led him to infer with some degree of certainty that the de. scendants of Shem, especially the Babylonians and Phoenicians not only in general, had frequent intercourse with the Egyptians, and introduced from Babylon the division of the year into twelve months, the week of seven days, measures and weights, many implements, etc., but that already in the infancy of the Egyptian people a very considerable commingling of both must have taken place, out of which and under the mighty influence of the Egyptian soil [climate, etc.), the peculiar character of Egyptian mind and life was developed. The general similarity of religious belief, and the propably more advanced culture of the Semitic nations, secured for them the powerful religious influence which the extensive intermixture of their language, and especially the introduction of the names of their deities before alluded to, clearly proves them to have exerted.

Hence we feel constrained entirely to dissent from the opinion formerly so generally held, and still occasionally advocated, of the positive influence of the Egyptians upon the religious and political culture of the Hebrews. What they have in common, e. g. circumcision, was manifestly transplanted from Semitic to Egyptian soil;" comp. p. 401 sq. and 744.

It now remains for us to give some specimens of the Author's method of discussing the individual roots and tracing out the derived meanings.

Whatever may be thought of his theory of reduplication and of deducing the signification from the organs of speech employed in the enunciation of the original root; his laborious industry in the comparison and ingenious collocation of the Semitic dialects cannot but awaken increased interest in the lovers of oriental philology, and set forth with still greater clearness their intimate relationship, and the consequent necessity of an acquaintance with all of them to a thorough study of the Old Testament.

We select an illustration or two from each of his three great classes, choosing such words as are of frequent occurrence and endeavoring, by breaking up his paragraphs, to render him somewhat more lucid.

Among the Prae-reduplicated Stems we find for instance the following:

to

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1847.]
Prae-reduplicated Stems.

381 w%3N, (p. 59) from the root 3) , to separate, divide, hence destroy, devour, in various senses, said of fire, pestilence, war,especially also of food ; hence in general, eat, eat up.

Post-reduplicated, the stem appears as msz, to be all gone, disappear, Pi. complete; *}7, to separate = keep off, include. Comp. BI, fricuit, scabit, edit ; 81, rex, tyrannus, pr. the decider=soló imperator.

(p. 26) from the root es, to bring together. cf.310 draw together, come together, hence also to cover; something drawn together, hence a) gummi, xóupu, gum of trees =

.. b) Of a contracted, small form. Harsher, as pës, to grasp.

The significations of an are, therefore :

1. In the Arabic, ps, to bring together = make fast (=pć to bind together) hem, keep off, defend, restrain.

2. TO MAKE FAST = fix firmly, appoint, and more particularly in a legal sense, to prepare or resolve upon a firm, specific decision ; hence, in general, decide, decide a contest, julge, with which the idea of power and sovereignty is naturally connected. The simple, related stems also signifies to firmly determine, distinctly specify. In like manner, the related eas IV.

, 3. To make something fast, mentally, i. e. grasp, comprehend, perceire, understand; hence Aram. and Arab. płó, discern, know, Heb. Dan intrans., to be wise, intelligent, sensible.

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From the same root the post-reduplicated perfect water

to

is formed, with the signification of drawing together, holding back, hence to put on the reins ; in which case the repeated J is softened

just as it appears prae-duplicated and softened in . Radically related is also the stem us, to hem, keep off, defend; Ton, which corresponds precisely to the Sanscr. jam = hem. For the Germ hemmen, Eng. hem, signifies strictly, draw together, whence also grasp, catch, hold back; hence (Germ.) Hamen, purse-net, hamus, hook.

From the first signification we easily deduce that of drawing

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over, covering, as in J, SAJ, Mad; hence (Germ.) Hemd shirt; comp. Swedish ham, cover, garment, (as as

an upper male garment) Germ. Himmel, heaven, i. e. the aerial covering; comp. Germ. Bett-himmel, Thron-himmel, canopy of a bed or throne. From the signification of drawn together there is further derived that of firm, strong, hard, especially in several Arabic forms, as also the related old High Germ. hamar, Slavonic Kamen, stone, rock, whence (a stone-axe) an instrument for beating, hammer.

By means of the fundamental signification we can also explain that of weakening, destroying, comp. App, , to contract one's

mb self=shrink up, waste away, grow poor, etc.

Somewhat different is the derivation of the Swedish hamla, Eng. hamble, properly to hem or lame by cutting the tendons of the knee. Comp. es amputavit pedes. And further, to obstruct or weaken the power of the male, hence to unman, lame, cripple ; comp. Germ. Hämmling, one castrated, Hammel the castrated male sheep. Finally, drawing together is often used in the sense of collecting, heaping together, e. g. ans, ow, etc.

The third method of developing the perfect, viz. by the prolongation of the radical vowel, also occurs with this root, and those related to it, in several formations, which however all proceed from the fundamental signification already given, and only by its means are they susceptible of a satisfactory explana.

עם

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tion; e. g.

op to bring together, heap up, pB 11. Hence paz (SonS =

= CU

mulus) pr. heap, group, further, the Pleiades. Also,

PL, op to draw together, draw in the feet, obstruct one's way, detain; hence, in the Arabic to continue standing, delay, stand, etc.; in the Hebrew to stand, maintain a position in a place, insist upon something, etc. Then also to come to pass (Germ. zu Stande konimen), to gain a firm footing; when, to come into vogue, arise, in various senses.

The stem 70%, to remain standing, from the root os=op is related to the one under consideration, as will subsequently be shown. Gesenius, in his Man. Lex. compares bon with pem, as though pn were the root, which is altogether a mistake.

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1847.)
Post-reduplicated Stems.

383 From the Post-reduplicated Stems we select the following: 727 from the root 27, comp. way through which it is derived.1 1. To press together, drive together; hence,

97, that which hurries away, sweeps off, the pestilence; comp. još perdidit. Lóð interitus, ; 55 id. Kindred with 1-7 is the Arab. 5 pestis

. may the bee, pr. that which presses, sharply attacks, = stings, injures.

739 the pressed together, closed up; hence the most retired part of the temple. miast the drifts, rafts, 1 Kings 5: 23.

The Hiph. with non signifies to drive under something, suppress, subject, Ps. 18:48. 47: 4.

2. In general, lo drive together, especially drive and lead cattle, hence, 777? , pasture.

3. In the Piel, to bring together or order words, i. e. to speak 127. Comp. ipɛiv, sermo, etc. now from the root ou = hold together, hold firmly, keep.

name that which is dense, firm, hard; hence, a) A thorn. b) A precious stone, named from its hardness. Hence also the names of several cities = fortress.

now Lees. Originally, that which is drawn together, drawn off, i. e. the sediment deposited in the fermentation. Com. Engl. sediment, lees, French lie (pr. that which settles) kindred with the German legen, to lay. Since wine is improved, if after several tappings the lees are entirely separated from it, Hefen-wein by Is. 25: 6 (Engl vs. wines on the lees] signifies wine cleansed from the lees excellent wine; which expression was selected here on account of the play upon words with on fat, juicy meats. We might thus render it : “ Ein Mahl von Mast-fleische, ein Mahl von Most-flaschen; von markigem Mast-fleische, von geläuterten Most-flaschen."

The expression "settled on their lees” i. e. grown thick upon them, Zeph. 1: 12, (stiff or stupid with what one has gained and hoarded up,) confirms the original signification here given. Comp.

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That is, according to the theory of the author, in the regular series of mutations the reduplicated stem 727 would assume the form van (the lingual being changed into a sibilant) rather than 737, so that the presence of the form nay presupposes the other, which however nowhere occurs as a verb, though we find it in several derivations, viz. jay, honey, rezi, hump.

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Amos 5: 11. The figure alludes to the fact that wine which stands too long upon the lees easily spoils and becomes thick. Comp. Jer. 48: 11. “ Moab lies thickened upon his lees, was not poured from our vessel into another, etc.” The common idea that lees are so named from their quality of preserving, is altogether erroneous.

The word now has been adopted in the Coptic, Shemer = fermentum, because many kinds of lees, e. g. those of beer, cause other substances to ferment; hence in upper Germany Hefel (Hefe) for leaven.

1773 from the root na signifies originally not to be rough, according to Gesenius, but, as the kindred stems, to separate, split, break through; hence Piel, set loose, arouse, especially a contest, Prov. 15: 18. Hithp. arouse one's self, be zealous ; hence also, to quarrel, contend.

zing the substantive also, does not, (as Gesenius supposes,) de. rive its signification, viz. throat, from the idea of a rough tone, but means simply, a split, a hollow place; hence, throat, windpipe, Ps. 5: 10: “ Their throat is an open sepulchre.” Compare in German Kehle = gula, Persian els gula, and glutus, throat, with the low German, Kuhle, hole, ditch, as rumen and rima.

The passage cited by Gesenius, Ps. 69: 4, proves anything else than that the throat has its name from roughness; for me is Niph. part. of 7, to cease glowing, dry up, as Ps. 102: 4: "I am exhausted by my crying, my throat is parched.” On the other hand, where it signifies to call with or out of the throat, the strict sense is to speak with a loud, full voice; cf. Is. 58: 1. Ps. 115: 7. 149: 6.

Similarly derived meanings grow out of the stem 77 [i. e. from the root when reduplicated by the repetition of the last letter) to split, separate, divide, hence 1. To take away, hurry off, Hab. 15, Prov. 27: 7, as the Arabic 2. To divide, separate, hence saw, as the German sägen is kindred with secare; and also Poel, to be sawed in pieces, 1 Kings 7: 9. Finally 3. To split, divide, also means to crush with the teeth; hence mma) That which has been made small, crushed, chewed; hence, that which was eaten. Thus we can explain the phrase 1772-ben to bring up what was chewed, i. e. to ruminate, Lev. 11: 3—6. Deut. 14: 6,7. Once it occurs as 92077, Lev. 11: 7: “ To chew the chewed,” i. e. to chew the second time, ruminate. b) That which has been made small, separated, signifies also a piece, a single one; hence, grain, as a small object, thus also a small weight, the twentieth part of a

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