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Mss., is contained in an immense hall, (which is divided by pilasters into two portions,) and in two wings or galleries which extend from the end of the hall to an immense length. Painted cabinets or presses, entirely closed, contain the books and Mss., so that a stranger would have no suspicion of the nature or value of the contents. All that meet the eye are walls bright with tasteless, modern frescoes, Etruscan vases, tables of granite, statues, a column of oriental alabaster, etc. The halls are sadly wanting in the literary air of a library. The genius loci is concealed by inappropriate decoration. Overloaded ornament is indeed the characteristic of modern Italian taste, particularly in architecture. Among the Ms. treasures, which the writer looked at, were the Virgil of the fourth or fifth century, with fifty miniatures including a portrait of Virgil; a Terence of the ninth century with miniatures; Cicero De Republica, the palimpsest discovered by Cardinal Maï, under a version of Augustine's Commentary on the Psalms, a quarto of 598 pages, parts of it much defaced; a Pliny with very fine figures of animals drawn on the lower margin; a Greek calendar of the tenth century, gorgeously illuminated with basilicas, martyrdoms, etc.; the four Gospels of A. D. 1128, a very interesting Byzantine Ms., in quarto; an immense Hebrew Bible, folin, splendidly illuminated, almost beyond the power of a common arm to raise from the shelf, and for which the Jews of Venice are said to have offered its weight in gold; an officium mortis with most expressive and beautiful miniatures; the Codex Mexicanus, a very long calendar; the autograph copy of the De Sacramentis of Henry VIII. with the inscription on the last page, "Anglorum rex Henricus, Leo Decime, mittit hoc opus et fidei teste et amicitiae;" and the Letters of Henry VIII. to Anne Boleyn, seventeen in number, very characteristic of the amorous and capricious monarch. It is a curious fact, that since his day, and in consequence of his proceedings, the government of Great Britain has had no official intercourse with that of Rome. The printed books are mostly contained in eight or ten common rooms, within glass cases. Many of the volumes being bound in the white vellum for which Kome is so famous, make quite an imposing show. Of course the library is deficient in many works which are found in Protestant libraries. One room is wholly occupied with 400 volumes of engravings, mostly in large folio. The Papal government is extensively engaged in executing engravings; of some kinds it enjoys a monopoly. The custode stated the number of printed books in the Vatican library to be 100,000, and of Mss. 35,000, probably much exaggerated, especially in respect to the printed books. The Ms. treasures are precious beyond all price, and it is supposed, that valuable discoveries would be the result of a free and thorough examination. Complaints are made of the illiberal policy pursued by the present librarian, Cardinal Maï. This celebrated scholar, now somewhat advanced in life, has been satisfied for some years with his former reputation.
Esaias Tégner, bishop of Wexio in Sweden, the distinguished poet and professor of Greek literature, died on the second of Nov. 1846, aged sixty-four. He was the most eminent literary character in Sweden and his death is greatly lamented. The Swedish academy of Sciences went into mourning for one month, and the president, the historian, Geijer, is to pronounce his eulogy. Though eminent in literature he is said not to have neglected his spiritual duties. He is well known to those who
read the English language, by the fine translations of Mr. Longfellow.— Lepsius, the investigator of Egyptian antiquities, has just been knighted by the king of Prussia, and made regius professor in the university of Berlin.-C. F. Neumann, an eminent professor in the university of Munich, has just published a History of the British war in China. He speaks English perfectly, is well versed in the literature of England, and is one of the first Chinese scholars on the continent. He resided in China several years and by his knowledge of native sources has given the Chinese version of the causes of the war, as well as the English. A writer in the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung, pronounces the history to be very able and impartial. The great lesson which the book teaches is the folly of the exclusive system which has so long characterized the Chinese policy.-Stephen Endlicher of Vienna has published a Chinese Grammar under the title, 'Anfängsgrunde d. Chines. Grammatik,' in 288 pages, which is highly commended in the last No. of the Vienna Jahrbücher.—The same publication contains a review by the veteran G. Hermann of Leipsic of several works on Eschylus, which have lately appeared in England and Germany. Of one of these editors, F. A. Paley, who has published an edition of the tragedies, Hermann writes thus: "The expectations which the preface awakens are by no means fulfilled. The critic is wholly "unsicher," shows neither a sufficient acquaintance with the language, with the metre, nor even with the prosody. He is not familiar with the Greek tragedians,” etc. Franz, who has translated one of the tragedies for the Berlin theatre, is commended, having examined, among other Mss. the Medicean which are the most important. Hermann thus gives his judgment on Ahrens, who has published on the Greek dialects: 'Ahrens looks upon the Greek authors in respect to forms and words, not in relation to the thoughts and tone of the writers. He needs a critical discipline. His conjectures are commonly vague, roundabout opinions.'
The great work by Prof. Rosellini of Pisa, on Egyptian Antiquities, published by the Tuscan government, is now complete. It is entitled "L' Opere dell Rosellini Monumenti dell' Egitto è publiati in quaranti Dispensi," etc. The text is published in forty numbers or livraisons. The plates, sixty in all, are in large folio; a few of them are colored. The price of the whole work, including the plates, is 1636 paoli, about $163. It is stereotyped and sold for the Tuscan government by William Piatti, bookseller, Florence. It would be a valuable addition to all our public libraries in the United States. The learned author died shortly before the completion of the publication. The antiquities collected by him in Egypt are deposited in Florence. They consist of the articles commonly found in Egyptian museums. Among them is a porcelain bottle with an inscription in Chinese characters, said to have been found in an Egyptian tomb. There is also the Scythian car, found in the tomb of one of the captains of the host of Rameses the Great, B. C. 1560. It looks exceedingly fragile. It is wholly of wood, carefully worked, with some ornaments of ivory. There are no pins or bands or fastenings of metal. There is another small collection of Egyptian antiquities in Florence, in the imperial gallery. The most important museum in Italy is at Turin, collected by Drovetti. It is said to contain 8000 articles. The principal objects are, with few exceptions, in the highest state of preser
vation. The specimens of Egyptian statuary, many of which are colossal, are the most valuable portions. The most remarkable is what is supposed to be the statue of Sesostris. Could this collection and the two at Florence be united, scientifically classified and described, they would afford a most interesting study.
One of the most interesting spots near Venice is the island of St. Lazaro, a small island, about an hour's sail in a gondola from the city. The island was given by the senate of Venice in Sept. 1717 to the abbot and founder of the Armenian community, Dr. Mechitar. An air of uncommon neatness and order pervades the entire establishment. The church is a simple yet handsome edifice with fine altars. Services are held every day at 5 A. M., at noon, and at 3 P. M. There are an archbishop, twenty-five priests, thirty pupils, seven Armenian and thirty Italian servants now resident on the island. It is the metropolis of Armenian literature. Four printing presses are constantly employed. The works published are sent to the Armenians in all parts of the world. The compositors are Italians who have merely a mechanical acquaintance with the Armenian characters. A book has been published in twenty-four languages, containing twenty-four prayers of St. Nerses, answering to the hours of the day. The library is worthy of a king's palace, most exact in its proportions and tasteful in its ornaments. The beautiful book-cases, made of the pear-tree, contain 15,000 volumes, handsomely bound. Among them are Elzevir and Aldi editions. In another room are 1000 Armenian Mss. mostly inedited and a copy of each of the works which have been printed at the establishment. Among these are translations of Young's Night Thoughts and of the Paradise Lost.
Messrs. D. Appleton and Co. announce as in press, A New Edition of Livy for the use of Colleges, with English Notes, by Professor J. L. Lincoln, of Brown University. The text will be based upon that of the recent valuable German edition of Dr. Alschefski, of Berlin, the first two volumes of which were reviewed in the last Number of this Journal. The Notes will be partly philological, aiming at the solution of grammatical difficulties, and at the illustration of the language, with references to the grammars and other helps most in use in this country; and partly explanatory, giving the necessary information on all obscure matters, and in regard to the early history of Rome, furnishing as far as practicable, the results of the researches of Niebuhr, Arnold, and other modern writers, together with references to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. The edition will be furnished with a Geographical and Historical Index, with a Plan of the City of Rome, (from the recent German work of Prof. Becker, on Roman Antiquities,) and other useful illustrations. The works of Josephus. A new Translation by the Rev. Robert Traill, D. D. With pictorial illustrations from drawings taken on the spot, by Wm. Tipping, Esq. This is an attempt by means of a new and good translation and splendid illustrations, to introduce Josephus to the rank of an English classic. Two parts have been received, which fully sustain the public expectation. It is understood to be under the editorial supervision of Isaac Taylor, Esq., of Ongar. We know of no work which promises more for the elucidation of the Bible. We hope to speak of it more fully in another Number.
ZUMPT'S LATIN GRAMMAR.
A Grammar of the Latin Language, by C. G. Zumpt, Ph. D., Professor in the University, and Member of the Royal Academy of Berlin. From the ninth edition of the original, adapted to the use of English students by Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., late of the University of Bonn. London, 1845.
By Charles Siedhof, Ph. D., late Rector of the Gymnasium at Aurich, in the Kingdom of Hanover.
In order to examine this valuable work from a proper point of view, and to form an estimate of it not merely as a grammar, but also as an indication of the rate of progress made in classical learning, it will be necessary to direct our attention first to other works of a different character, though of a similar design, which preceded it. At a time when nothing was required of the Latin scholar but an ability to write and speak the language as it had been in common use for centuries in the literary world, a lifeless and uniform method, as represented in the Grammar of J. Lange, of which not less than forty-two editions appeared, would meet the demand in elementary instruction. The circle of knowledge was then exceedingly narrow; and besides, the Germans, at that time, possessed no independent national literature. Consequently, reading was rather oft repeated than widely extended; and thus a great intimacy was contracted with the Roman classics, which compensated, in great measure, for the deficiency in VOL. V. No. 15.
grammatical training. But an age of independent inquiry succeeded; the trammels of tradition were by degrees thrown off; and scholars were disposed to look into the nature of things, each for himself, more fearlessly and searchingly. Now Basedow made his appearance. With a keen glance, he discovered and exposed the defective character and bad influence of a merely mechanical system of education; but by maintaining that nothing except what was of direct practical utility should be studied by the young, he fell into the opposite extreme, which, in the end, would necessarily produce a reäction. According to his view, since language was but the mere expression of thought, it could best be acquired orally. Consequently grammars should be banished from the schools. From this point of view, the venerable Campe could say that the inventor of the spinning wheel deserved to be held in higher estimation than the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. It was in allusion to this school that Ernesti said, "the mother-tongue (Frau Muttersprache), becoming proud of her new distinction as mistress, threatens to turn the Latin out of doors." Here, as in all controversies, there were violent partisans on both sides, fighting desperately for existence, and a third class who acted the part of mediators. The philologists of the old school looked with a friendly eye upon these last, whose aim was not to neglect ancient learning, but to exchange its cumbrous and unseemly dress for one of more comeliness and grace. By this means the popular favor, which was beginning to be lost, could be recovered and secured.
The first who attempted a reform of the old system of grammar was Scheller the lexicographer, a very industrious scholar, whose labors will always be regarded with respect, notwithstanding the disposition of later critics, particularly Reisig, to speak disparagingly of them. Bröder's work, with its brief rules and wellchosen examples, was much more successful. His peculiar method of treatment had the effect not only to facilitate the labor of committing to memory, a practice which universally prevailed at that time, but to secure, in his view a much higher end, namely, to allure the student to habits of reflection. After him, Wenck made the first direct attempt to arrange the grammatical materials of the Latin language, not according to arbitrary rules, but according to philosophical principles. The attempt was not very successful, though the elder Grotefend, who had the supervision
'To be distinguished from the younger Grotefend, whose Latin Grammar has recently been edited anew by Krüger.