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Christ Church and All Souls.
feet in length, 40 in breadth and 50 in height, the roof ornamented with nearly 300 coats of arms and other decorations. It is used as a refectory, and is adorned with 110 portraits. The chapel is very quaint and antique. On each side of the Choir are massive Saxon pillars; the roof is of stone-work. The sacramental plate was found in the ruins of Osney abbey. This choir is said to have been, in A. D. 730, a church for nuns. In the centre of the large north window in the west transept is represented the murder of archbishop Becket. In the Dormitory are many curious monuments and relics. Over the tomb of St. Frides wide is a beautiful Gothic shrine. On the monument to Robert Burton, author of the Anatomy of Melancholy, is his bust, a calculation of his nativity, and the following inscription written by himself: "Paucis notus, paucioribus ignotus, hic jacet Democritus Junior, cui vitam dedit, et mortem, Melancholia. Obiit VIII. Id. Jan. A. C. MDCXXXIX.” In the Peckwater quadrangle is the Library, 161 feet in length, containing 12 busts and 295 paintings. Some of these are fine specimens of art, from the Dutch, Flemish and Italian masters, none, however, ranking in the first class. The collection of books, coins, prints, Mss. etc. is large and valuable. In the list of graduates of this college are Atterbury, South, Lyttleton, Bolingbroke, Sidney, Locke, William Penn, Ben Jonson, Canning and Peel.
All Souls, perhaps, comes next to Christ Church in its aristocratic reputation. It was founded by archbishop Chichele, in 1437. It is styled in the charter, "The college of the souls of all the faithful people deceased of Oxford." In the old quadrangle is a dial, contrived by Sir Christopher Wren, when fellow of the college, which, by the help of two half rays, and one whole one for every hour, shows to a minute what is the time. In the chapel is a marble statue of William Blackstone, also a fellow of the college, and professor of Common Law, represented as sitting in his robes, his right hand on a volume of his Commentary, his left holding Magna Charta. In the hall are about thirty portraits of eminent persons. The Library is a noble room, 200 feet long, 39 broad and 40 in height. It has two ranges of book-cases, one above the other, supported by Doric and Ionic pillars. Over the upper book-cases, are placed alternately, bronze-vases and busts. The library is said to contain more than 40,000 volumes. Young, author of the Night Thoughts, and bishop Heber were members of this college.
Balliol college, situated on Broad-street, has some interesting
reminiscences. In the city-ditch, now the site of the houses on the opposite side of the street, Ridley and Latimer suffered martyrdom by fire, Oct. 16, 1555, and Cranmer, March 21 of the following year. They were confined sometime in Bocardo prison, which was over the north-gate and crossed Corn-market street, adjoining the tower of St. Michael's Church. Cranmer is said to have ascended the top of the tower in which he was confined to witness the execution of his companions, where he kneeled down and prayed to God to strengthen their faith. Near Balliol College on the west is the church of St. Mary Magdalene, originally built, it is supposed, before the Norman conquest. In 1940, there was attached to the north side of this church an aisle, called the " Martyrs' aisle." In the wall the identical door of the Bocardo prison is inserted. In the sunk panels of the buttresses, the armorial bearings of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, with those of their respective sees, are introduced, together with the initials of their names and various emblematic devices, e. g. the hand of Cranmer in the flames, an open Bible, the palm of triumph crossed by the fire-brand of torture, etc.1 At the north end of the churchyard, another honorary monument has been erected, in the form of the memorial crosses erected by Edward I. to his queen Eleanor, and also like the one at Godesberg near Bonn, and also the elegant Gothic spire, the “beautiful fountain," Schöner Brunnen, at Nuremberg. The height is 73 feet, the form is a hexagon. It has rich decorations of niches, canopies, pediments, buttresses and pinnacles. The stone is a finely crystallized magnesian limestone, selected by Prof. Buckland. The figures of the martyred prelates were carved by Henry Weeks. On the three intermediate sides of the hexagon are the following symbols on shields, viz. the crown of thorns and the crown of glory—the sacramental cup and an open Bible-two crossed palm-branches and two crossed fire-brands. The whole structure is very appropriate and of exceeding beauty. The following is the inscription on the north face of the basement: To the glory of God, and in grateful commemoration of his servants, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Hugh Latimer, prelates of the church of England, who, near this spot, yielded their bodies to be burned; bearing witness to the sacred truths which they had affirmed and maintained against the errors of the church of Rome; and rejoicing
It is a singular circumstance, that two clergymen, recently officiating in this Martyrs' church, have become Roman Catholics, Rev. Robert A. Coffin, perpetual curate, 1844, and Rev. Charles H. Collyns, assistant curate.
Radcliffe and Bodleian Libraries.
that to them it was given not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for his sake. This monument was erected by public subscription in the year of our Lord God, 1841.
Wiclif was master of Balliol College in 1361. He was a member of Merton College. He dwelt near the spot where now stands the east gate of Christ Church, called Canterbury Gate. Dr. Pusey resides in the south-west corner of the great quadrangle of Christ Church. Bishop Butler was educated at Oriel, which has become distinguished as the leading Oxford college in the Tractarian controversy. Dr. Samuel Johnson was member of Pembroke in 1738. His study was the top room over the gate-way. In 1732, George Whitefield, when eighteen years of age, was entered as servitor at this college. He took the degree of B. A. in 1736. John Wesley was a student of Christ Church and subsequently a fellow of Lincoln. His father, Samuel Wesley, was a member of Exeter College. Among the members of Magdalen College were Cardinal Wolsey, Fox the martyrologist and John Hampden. The latter, by a strange coïncidence, was associated with Laud, then president of St. John's College, to write congratulatory poems on the marriage of the elector Palatine to the princess Elizabeth.2
The buildings and establishments belonging to the university are the Radcliffe Library, The Schools containing a part of the Bodleian Library, The Clarendon, The Theatre, The Ashmolean Museum, The University Galleries, The Radcliffe Infirmary, The New University Printing Office, and The Observatory.
The Radcliffe Library was completed in 1749 from a bequest of Dr. Radcliffe, who left £40,000 for that purpose and a fund for a librarian and other purposes. The books are principally in natural history and medicine. The rooms are enriched with busts, vases, portraits, a collection of 1000 Corsi marbles, etc.
The Bodleian Library was founded in 1602 by Sir Thomas Bodley; it occupies many large rooms, and is constantly increasing, having the right of a copy of every work printed in the king
1 Eight of its members, seven of them clergymen, have followed Mr. Newman in his adhesion to the Romish church. Mr. N.'s lodgings were a narrow suite of rooms at the top of the stairs, on the south side of the quadrangle.
* Prince Rupert, the son of this marriage, led the king's forces in that skirmish, June 18, 1643, in which Hampden was mortally wounded. Two hundred years from that day a monument was erected in Chalgrove Field, Oxfordshire, a few paces from the fatal spot, in reverence to the memory of Hampden, with an inscription by Lord Nugent.
dom, an annual income of £2000 for the purchase of books, works of art, etc. It has Selden's library of 8000 volumes, 1300 Mss. given by Laud, the Oppenheim library rich in Rabbinical literature, a large collection of Oriental Mss., 50,000 dissertations by members of foreign universities, prints, medals, coins, etc. The whole number of volumes is not known, at least different authorities vary greatly. M. Balbi, after canvassing different estimates in 1835, gives the whole number as about 200,000 books and 25,000 Mss. The German Conversations Lexicon states, that the library, according to some, contains 250,000 volumes, according to others, 500,000. The Oxford local authorities make the total amount 400,000. No books are allowed to be taken from this library. The rooms seem to be quite insufficient and insecure for so vast a treasure. It is said that the copy-right is sometimes hardly esteemed a privilege, as it introduces an immense amount of trash.
The building called the Schools was completed early in the 17th century. It contains in the west side a part of the Bodleian library and the Picture gallery (which has many pictures, busts, statues, models of ancient buildings, etc.); on the north-east is the part used for the public examination of the students of all the colleges and halls, before taking a degree; and in the centre of the east side is a tower, in which are kept the muniments and registers of the university. The Clarendon was formerly the University Printing Office. It is now used for the meetings of the heads of colleges, lecture rooms, a museum for mineralogy, etc. The Theatre was erected at the sole expense of Archbishop Sheldon, in 1664, at a cost of £15,000. It was designed and built by Wren, after the model of the theatre of Marcellus at Rome. It will contain more than 3000 persons. The roof rests solely on the external walls. The annual convocation of the university is held in this room, called the "Commemoration of Benefactors." Honorary degrees are sometimes conferred here. At the commemoration in 1814 some of the allied sovereigns were present. The contents of the Ashmolean museum, founded by Elias Ashmole, are classed according to the plan of Paley's Natural Theology. The museum is quite miscellaneous and not of great value. The university Galleries, or the Taylor Institution, erected from the bequests of Sir Robert Taylor and Rev. Dr. Randolph, now contain Chantrey's monumental and other figures and busts; Lawrence's collection of the drawings of Raphael and Michael Angelo, 190 in number; some paintings; the Pomfret statues, and the Arundel
Professors and Lecturers.
marbles. It is also intended to furnish a foundation for the "teaching and improving of the European languages." The Printing office, erected in 1826, has a front of 250 feet in length. On the south side, Bibles, and Common Prayer Books are printed; on the north side, classical works.
We subjoin a list of the University professors:
R. D. Hampden, D. D., Regius Prof. of Divinity,
J. Phillimore, D. C. L.,
E. B. Pusey, D. D.,
T. Gaisford, D. D.,
E. Cardwell, D. D., Camden Prof. of Ancient History,
W. Crotch, Mus. D., Prof. of Music,
Medicine and Anatomy,
S. Reay, B. D., Laud's Prof. of Arabic,
C. G. B. Daubeny, D. M., Prof. of Botany and Chemistry,
J. Garbett, M. A., Prof. of Poetry,
J. A. Cramer, D. D., Prof. of Modern Hist. and Mod. Languages,
W. E. Buckley, M. A., Prof. of Anglo-Saxon,
J. A. Ogle, D. M., Prof. of Clinical Medicine,
J. D. Macbride, D. C. L., lecturer in Arabic,
N. W. Senior, D. C. L., Prof. of Political Economy,
H. H. Wilson, M. A., Boden Prof. of Sanscrit,
R. Walker, M. A., reader in Experimental Philosophy,
The professors and lecturers have certain salaries allowed them on some foundation, and are in consequence required to deliver lectures annually, on such subjects as the founders may have appointed in their charters or wills. The first five regius professorships were founded by Henry VIII, with a yearly salary of £40. The remaining support of the professors is derived from various canonries, masterships, etc. Some of these professorships are mere sinecures. The attendance upon the lectures is, we believe, voluntary, so far as any university statute is concerned. The professors as such have very little authority in managing the concerns of the university. Some of them are non-residents; e. g. Dr. Buckland resides at London, being dean of Westminster. Most of the subjects of the lectures are regarded with little favor