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ary shows in what manner the words are pronounced by the most eminent orthoëpists. Many words of this class are also accompanied with critical remarks.
No part of the work before us is deserving of higher commendation than the author's analysis of sounds. Many of the errors in pronunciation which are so prominent in the Dictionary of Dr. Webster, have sprung legitimately from his defective view of the elementary sounds of the language. Thus, the sound of a in care, rare, etc., which is properly a distinct element, is given by Webster as identical with a in fate. The absurdity of this pronunciation may be readily shown by uttering in immediate succession the words fate, hale, care, giving to a in care the same sound as in the words fate and hale.
A similar error occurs in Webster's pronunciation of the words glass, grass, last, etc., in which he gives to the vowel the grave sound, as in father. Walker, on the other hand, gives it the short sound, as in man. Worcester makes this sound a separate element, intermediate between the grave and the short sound. It is true, that words of this class were pronounced with the grave sound in the time of George the Third, and the short sound may, perhaps, be adopted in the reign of George the Sixth; but good speakers of the present day employ the intermediate sound given by Worcester.
The Pronouncing Dictionary of Walker has had an extensive circulation; but it is now almost entirely superseded in England by later and more accurate works, and its influence in this country is rapidly waning. It is superfluous to say, that a dictionary which requires the words took, book, look, etc., to be pronounced with the close sound of the diphthong, as in pool, tool, food, and the words bench, drench, inch, etc., to be pronounced as if written bensh, drensh, insh, etc., cannot safely be relied on as a standard.
In giving the orthography of words, Worcester has wisely avoided the extremes of both Webster and Walker, and furnished a work that accords more nearly with the best usage of the language than any other dictionary in use.
A copious vocabulary of words of doubtful or various orthography is given, and many words of this class are accompanied with critical remarks in the body of the work. We select the following, which occurs under the word Judgment:
"The following words, abridgment, acknowledgment, and judgment, are to be found, with the orthography here given, in the English dictionaries which preceded the publication of Mr. Todd's improved edition of Dr.
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Johnson's Dictionary. Todd altered Johnson's orthography of these words, by the insertion of an e, thus, abridgement, acknowledgement, judgement. The English dictionaries of Jameson and Smart, which have appeared since the publication of Todd's edition of Johnson, also retain the e. Many respectable writers now insert the e in these words. The omission of it, however, has been hitherto, and still continues to be, the prevailing usage; but it is, perhaps, not very improbable that the usage may yet be changed, and the more consistent orthography be generally adopted."
The grammatical forms and inflections of words are given more fully by Worcester than by any previous author. His Dictionary also contains numerous technical terms, relating to the arts and sciences, and such words and phrases from foreign languages as are often met with in English books.
The whole work embraces, in its several vocabularies, nearly 100,000 words.
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PROFESSOR Hengstenberg of Berlin writes as follows, in respect to his Christology. Although the German edition has been out of print for a long time, still I am sure that no new edition will appear within several years. For, after the completion of my commentary on the Psalms, I have thrown myself, with the greatest zeal, upon the Revelation of St. John. But if I should give a new edition, it would contain no important change; the greatest would be in the treatment of the Messianic Psalms. In my Article on Balaam (Numbers 24th chapter), I have arrived at a different conclusion from that in the Christology." We learn that the publisher of Dr. Keith's translation of this able and important work, intends to print an abridged edition, in one large volume, under the editorial care of Rev. Prof. Packard of Alexandria, D. C.
We learn that the geographer, Dr. Ritter of Berlin, expects to spend the coming winter in visiting the peninsula of Sinai, Syria, etc.
The veteran classical scholar and teacher, Frederic Jacobs, died at Gotha, on the 30th of March, 1847. He was born at Gotha, Oct. 6, 1764. From 1790 to 1807 he was teacher in the gymnasium in that city, and from 1807 to 1813, professor in the Lyceum in Munich and member of the Academy of Sciences. From 1813 to his death, he was head libra
rian of the ducal library at Gotha. His writings are very numerous, some of them are exceedingly attractive, and are filled with valuable thoughts. His style is genial and happy, and his devotion to classical pursuits most enthusiastic. He united, in a degree which is very uncommon in German classical authors, a pure taste with profound knowledge. The 7th vol. of his Miscellaneous Writings (8 Bde, 1822--45), contains bis autobiography. Several very delightful articles from his pen may be found in the "Classical Studies," a volume published a few years ago by Gould, Kendall & Lincoln of Boston.
Dr. Hug, who lately deceased at Freiburg in the Breisgau, had prepared for the press the 4th ed. of his Introduction to the New Testament. While the leading features of the earlier editions are scrupulously retained, it has received important corrections and additions. The work has enjoyed an extensive and deserved popularity, both among Protestants and Catholics. The author was a candid and considerate member of the Catholic communion, and like Dr. Jahn of Vienna, acceptable to all parties. The guiding principle of the Introduction is the historical, which alone can lead to true results in a production of this nature. It is to be published by Cotta of Stuttgard, at about $3,50.
The Psalms, according to the original text, metrically translated and interpreted by J. G. Vaihinger. Cotta, Stuttgard, 3 Thlr. The qualities necessary in a translator and interpreter of the Psalter, the author remarks, are acuteness of understanding, sound judgment, vivid imagination, susceptibility of emotion, and purity and warmth of religious life, without which no one can penetrate the depths of divine revelation. These high qualities are possessed by the author himself in a good degree, as an able reviewer thinks in a late No. of the Jena Allgem. Litt. Zeit. In an Introduction of sixty-five pages, Vaihinger discusses the nature and peculiarites of Hebrew poetry, the origin and development of the Hebrew lyric, the rhythm and strophe, the origin and conclusion of the Psalter, superscriptions, etc., history and theological exposition of the Psalms, translation and commentary, value of the Psalter and adds testimonies to its worth. The spirit of Vaihinger may be learned from the following sentence: "Without the supposition of a special revelation in the Old Testament, that is, of such a relation of God to the Israelitish people, to its patriarchs and prophets, as cannot be conceived from a mere human development of this people, but which points to a peculiar action of the Divine Spirit among them, it is as impossible to come to a clear insight into the history of the nation as it is to a true comprehension of Christianity, which still manifestly has its roots in the institutions and promises of the Old Testament." - The 3d vol. of Ewald's History of the Israelites has been published. The Grammar of Modern Persian, by Mirza Moham
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med Ibrahim, professor of Arabic and Persian in the East India college at Haileybury, near Loudon, has been translated into Gerinan, in part reedited and accompanied with notes, by Dr. H. L. Fleischer of Leipsic. Dr. F. is a leading man in the German Oriental Society, and one of the most distinguished scholars in Arabic and the cognate languages. The following is the title of a specimen of a new edition of the Heb. Cod. by Prof. Theile, published at Leipsic: "Liber Geneseos, in usum Scholarum academicarum cum brevi notarum Masoretbicarum explicatione." Dr. A. Heilegstedt has prepared the first part of Vol. IV. of Maurer's Commentary on the Old Test. It contains the book of Job in a vol. of 311 pages, price $1,25. The 2d part, containing Ecclesiastes and the Canticles, completing the O. Test, is nearly ready. The first livraison of Vol. I. of the second ed. of the Consessus of Hariri, collated with the Mss. and augmented by historical and explanatory notes, has just been published in Paris, under the editorial care of Reinaud and Derenbourg. The popularity of this oriental poem is owing, in addition to its intrinsic excellence, to the invaluable labors of De Sacy and to the genial German translation by the poet F. Rückert. The repeated editions of this translation show in what estimation it is held. It has called forth the criticism of a learned Arab, Nasif Efendi el-Yasidshi of Beirût, who has happily corrected some things from his acquaintance with his vernacular speech. An edition of this literary curiosity is expected from von Mehren, a pupil of Prof. Fleischer. De Sacy's ed. of the Consessus was long since exhausted. Reinaud, who succeeded De Sacy in the special school of oriental languages at Paris, undertook this second edition, with the assistance of Derenbourg. Explanatory notes in French are added to De Sacy's commentary, which is wholly in Arabic. The entire work will be included in two volumes. — Among the distinguished Jews of the Middle Ages was Jehadi ben Solomon, called el-Charisi, who flourished in the first half of the 13th century, in Moorish Spain, probably in Granada. He travelled in many countries, and was led to pay special attention to the condition of Hebrew poetry. Some of the leading Jews in Spain, who were ignorant of Arabic, requested him to translate into Hebrew the Consessus of Hariri, whose fame had in a short time penetrated into all the Moslem countries. This be accomplished with great ability, under the title bang inang. The third Consessus is communicated by De Sacy in the Hariri. When he returned home, Charîsi gave the results of his numerous observations in a poetical work, which is formally connected with the poem of Hariri, but is really an independent and original production. He shows great talent in delineating all the aspects of human life, comic and tragic, and a perfect mastery of the Hebrew language. He is a strongly orthodox Jew, but has a high regard for art and science.
One of the poems is in Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic. The whole work is termed Tahkemoni ( 2 Sam. 23: 8). It is divided into fifty gates () It was printed in Constantinople in 1540, again in 1583, and at Amsterdam in 1729. These editions were very negligently printed, and were without the vowels, except in the verse. A new edition has just appeared under very favorable auspices, at Berlin, under the charge of Dr. Kämpf, a learned Jew. It is based on a very correct Ms. of A. D. 1281, about fifty years after the death of the author. The whole is supplied with vowels, with notes in which parallel places from the Bible and the Talmud are quoted, and with a translation, introduction, etc. Price in Germany, 1 Thlr. 10 Ngr.
Monument de Ninive découvert et décrit par M. P. E. Botta, mesuré et desiné par M. E. Flandin. Livr. I—X. Paris, 1847. Imp. fol. à 20 Fr. This work is published by order of the government, under the direction of a commission of the Institute. Botta, a nephew of the well known Italian historian, and French consul in Mosul, began his researches in 1843. Between four and five hours N. E. of Mosul, at the village of Khursabad, lying on the little river Khauser, his excavations were rewarded by the discovery of a large palace. The entire village was purchased by the French government, the palace was laid open, drawings of the bas-reliefs and copies of the inscriptions were taken, and such bas-reliefs and figures as could be removed, were taken to Paris, where they are to be placed in the Louvre. The palace contains 15 halls or galleries, several of them being from 100 to 115 feet long, but not above 13 feet high. No window has been discovered; light must have been admitted from above. All the walls, within and without, are covered with bas-reliefs. In the inner galleries the bas-reliefs are, for the most part, divided into two series, each 34 feet high; between the two are arrow-headed inscriptions. The design of the building is not apparent; it seems not to have been a necropolis or a temple; it might have been a villa or hall of one of the Assyrian monarchs, where he wished to leave a record of his warlike deeds. The age of the edifice is yet only a matter of conjecture. Flandin is inclined to place it at the second period of the Assyrian dynasty, whose kings are made known to us in the Bible, and who finally overthrew the Jewish kingdom. The drawings of Flandin and the copies of the inscriptions by Botta, are now publishing by the French government. The ten numbers already issued, contain twenty-two tables of bas-reliefs and twenty-two of inscriptions. The Englishman Layard has excavated a structure, similar to that at Khursabad, at Nimrud, six hours below Mosul, near what is supposed to be the site of ancient Larissa. The hill or mound is ten times larger than the one discovered by Botta, being 1800 feet long, 900 broad, and from 60 to 70 high. Here are the ruins of a palace, and a great