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THE TWENTY-FIRST AND TWENTY-SECOND
BOOKS ENTIRE;

cl

WITU

EXPLANATORY NOTES, A PLAN OF ROME, AND A MAP OF THE

PASSAGE OF HANNIBAL.

BY

JOHN L. LINCOLN, LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF LATIN IN BROWN UNIVERSITY.

NEW EDITION,

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

649 & 551 BROADWAY.

1873.

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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by

D. APPLETON & CO.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the

Southern District of New York.

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by

D. APPLETON & CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PREFACE.

The present edition of a part of the History of Livy has been undertaken with the hope of supplying a deficiency, which has been for some time experienced by teachers and students in American colleges. In regard to the principle of selection, it has been the object of the editor to furnish, in the extracts from the first Five Books, those passages in the writings of Livy which best illustrate the poetic character of the early Roman history; and, by giving the Twenty-first and Twentysecond Books entire, to present, in connection, a portion of authentic history, which yields to none in the entire work in point of interest and excellence. These extracts provide, it is believed, an amount of reading in Livy sufficient for the purposes of instruction in our colleges ; and it was deemed inexpedient to increase unnecessarily the size of the volume.

The text is chiefly that of Alschefski; whose excellent edition is understood to mark a new era in the history of the text of Livy, and, in the judgment of distinguished European scholars, will unquestionably attain and long hold the rank of the standard critical edition of Livy. Wherever other readings have been preferred to those of Alschefski, the reasons for the preference are usually given in the Notes.

The Notes have been prepared with chief reference to the grammatical study of the language; to the illustration of its forms, constructions, idioms, of its usages in general, and, in particular, of the usage of Livy. Wherever it was possible, it has been thought best, simply to furnish apt references to such grammars and auxiliary works as were supposed to be in the hands of the student; but important difficulties, which required more ample means of investigation and study, have been more fully discussed and explained. It is hoped that the Notes will be also found to embrace all necessary information relating to history, geography, and antiquities, together with useful references to such standard works as are accessible to the student. A list of such works as are commonly referred to may be found on the page immediately preceding the Notes. It has been the aim of the editor to furnish such assistance in the Notes as is needful to facilitate the progress of the diligent student; but above all things to avoid giving that pernicious help, whether in the form of indiscriminate translation, or of unnecessary explanation, which precludes all effort on the part of the pupil, and cripples his mental energies, by fostering habits of dependence and inaction.

The editions which have been consulted, besides Drakenborch's, have been those of Crevier, Ruperti, Bekker and Raschig, Twiss, Dymock by W. M. Gunn,

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