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seldom happens that we feel the sentiment of hatred pure and unmixed: being more apt to hate those who injure us, or make us feel disappointed, than we are to hate other men, and there being other sentiments arising towards such persons, we generally feel some other passion at the same time with hatred; and therefore what we have most commonly occasion to express, is really a compound sentiment; and for the compound we have no name: we are obliged therefore to express the compound by the name of one of its ingredients. Suppose then the compound to be made up of hatred and envy, it may be indifferent by which of those two names it is called. If indeed one of them were much stronger than the other, it would be natural to use the name of that which happened to predominate.
But the word hatred may not only express the pure simple feeling of hatred, or a compound sentiment of which it makes a part, but may be used, according to the custom of language, (so many more ideas have we than words,) to express the state of our minds when we feel, in any great degree, as we feel when we hate, in the strict and proper sense of the word. If therefore we only wish to avoid any object, we may be sometimes said to hate it; or if it be irksome or wearisome to us; nor must we think it strange or inaccurate if we are said to hate when we might with equal propriety have been said to envy, or resent, or disapprove. These uses of the word hatred will not appear forced or unnatural after the account which has been given of them: nor will there be more difficulty about what may be called hating comparatively, and hating in effect. Hating any person comparatively is preferring others to him: and hating in effect is doing that from some other principle, which is as hurtful as if it had proceeded from hatred.
13. Some instances will make these remarks more intelligible. And first of hatred in its strict and proper sense; in which we must understand what is said of Ahab and Micaiah, 1 Kings xxii. 8. Ahab was King of Israel, or Samaria, or of the ten Tribes; Jehoshaphat of Judah, or Jerusalem, or the two Tribes, Judah and Benjamin. "And the King of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, There is yet one man, Micaiah the son of
Imlah, by whom we may enquire of the Lord: but I hate him; for he doth not prophesy good concerning me, but evil." The very idea of Micaiah made Ahab feel unpleasant to himself: mortified and disappointed: feelings uneasy to any private man; still more so to a Monarch. Solomon says, in the same sense, Prov. xxv. 17. "Withdraw thy foot from thy neighbour's house; lest he be weary (margin, full) of thee, and so hate thee." In the second Book of Samuel xiii. 15. there is an instance which may be important in practice, of a man's hating the partner of his guilt, though what is called love had occasioned the offence. "Then Amnon hated her exceedingly; so that the hatred wherewith he hated her was greater than the love wherewith he had loved her." The partner of guilt naturally becomes odious to any one who has any moral feeling, as strongly exciting remorse and dissatisfaction. When the connubial affection is said to be changed into hatred, we may understand the word in its proper sense: of this we find more than one instance in the book of Deuteronomy, xxii. 13. and xxiv. 3. Hatred is also to be understood strictly when the vicious are spoken of as hating the virtuous: the mere sight of a virtuous man may make one of an opposite character feel inward mental pain; and, if not wholly abandoned, remorse and shame. The virtuous continually, though silently, check all the desires, thwart all the views of the vicious. (see before, § 8.) The life of a good man is a perpetual reproach to a bad one; and what affects him more, he feels that all impartial, rational and worthy, spectators join in condemning him. Here is foundation enough for hatred; independent of actual reproof; independent of the opposition to worldly interests, which Christianity, whether incidentally or necessarily, occasions. "The blood-thirsty" says Solomon, "hate the upright," Prov. xxix. 10. "Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee," Prov. ix. 8. They hate him, " saith the prophet Amos, v. 10. "that rebuketh in the gate, and they abhor him that speaketh uprightly. Our Savior tells his twelve Apostles, Matt. x. 22. "Ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake:" though nothing can be more amiable in itself, to any one who can relish what is good, than the Gospel, When the
Scriptures call vicious actions works of darkness, Eph. v. 11. and affirm that "every one that doeth evil hateth the light," John iii. 20. and that "all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light," Eph. v. 13. they confirm our solution of such hatred. I am induced to offer one more instance of hatred in the proper sense, by its practical utility. Solomon says, Prov. xiv. 20. (see also xix. 7.) "The poor is hated even of his own neighbour: but the rich hath many friends." Or, according to the marginal translation, "many are the lovers of the rich." It might be doubted whether the word hatred is to be taken here in its proper sense; but it is to be feared there may be, if we speak from fact, too much ground for such interpretation. Poverty is apt to be associated in the mind with ideas that make men shrink from it, if they are not upon their guard; if they do not ward off disgust by calling up moral feelings. It is associated with ideas of want, distress, hardship, sordidness, complaint, of helplessness, want of resource in time of sickness, age, infirmity; want of accommodations; cold, hunger, nakedness; oppression, mortification. It excites a fear that the spectator may be pressed to part with that by which he hopes to procure enjoyment; even refusal in such a case is very painful, and the apprehension of being driven to refuse is very repulsive. If poverty suggest to us every thing we want to avoid; no wonder we avoid poverty. Moreover, a man is never dwelling on ideas of poverty, but ideas of wealth and splendor interfere with his deliberations: and riches are associated in the mind with what we desire; with that which flatters and dazzles us: with hope, plenty, luxury, sensual pleasure, power, superiority, and ingratiating caresses. The fine arts also, when employed in ornaments, of dress, buildings, hababitations, equipage, with politeness of behaviour, have great attractions; and contribute greatly to conciliate Love and prevent Hatred. Nor is vanity a little concerned. But one of the chief attractions of wealth, as viewed by a common spectator, is, that it rouses the imagination, and makes it expand, in grasping at happiness, far beyond any bounds of reason and moderation. The practical effect of all this is, that even those who in general mean well, deceive themselves, and
shun the poor more than they themselves imagine: they admit trifling excuses and pretences, all which would instantly vanish on the prospect of partaking of a splendid entertainment. Not that plain neatness, and cheerful simplicity, and virtuous indigence want charms; but to relish these the mind must be formed, the taste purified, beyond what is ordinarily to be expected; and the best dispositions may stand in need of some caution. I will only add, that if any should class hatred of poverty under avoiding, or under comparative hatred; the practical part of the subject, which is the most important, would receive little or no detriment from such an arrangement.
14. In the Epistle of Jude we meet with an instance of hating things inanimate. In the twenty-third verse mention is made of hating a garment. And the ablutions and purifications which were in use amongst the Jews, seem to imply the same kind of hatred. Many inanimate things excite disgust; but such disgust may generally be accounted for by the association of ideas and feelings.
15. When we determine to avoid any thing, we frequently feel, in some respects, the same as when we hate: the Psalmist therefore expresses himself naturally when he says, Psalm xxvi. 5. " I have hated the congregation of the wicked, and will not sit among the ungodly." And Solomon, when he says, Prov. xi. 15. "he that hateth suretiship is sure."
16. In like manner, when any undertaking is such that we have a repugnance to it; or when it is irksome; or when the remembrance of it is tedious and wearisome, we feel in some respects as when we hate. The author of the book of Ecclesiastes therefore naturally adopts such expressions as these; "I hated life;" "I hated all my labour which I had taken under the Sun.” The recollection of it was disgusting to him. Human Life, and labour, appeared to him to be vanity, and productive of vexation.
17. Envy is frequently mixed with hatred; many qualities appear to us more odious in him who is the cbject of our envy, than in other men. A successful
rival always makes us feel unsuccessful. Accordingly, he who is at the same time envied and hated, may be indifferently said to be the one or the other; we having no name for the compound sentiment. Instances of this sort of indifference we may observe in the natural language of Scripture. It is said, Gen. xxvii. 41. "And Esau hated Jacob, because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him. " Here was a competition for favor; wherefore Esau's sentiment might have been called envy, or jealousy; and perhaps with as much propriety as hatred. And it probably would have been called envy, in some passage, had the incidents been told repeatedly. This we may reasonably conclude from what is said by the sacred writers with regard to Joseph: Gen. xxxvii. 4. "And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him." It is farther said, verses 5 and 8, that "they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words." But almost immediately afterwards, ver. 11. it is said, "his brethren envied him." And in the Acts of the Apostles we read, vii. 9., that "the patriarchs moved with envy sold Joseph into Egypt."
18. After what has been said, and what we daily observe, nothing need be here offered in order to prove, that it is natural for enemies, if they do not regulate their passions, to feel some hatred towards each other: whether they are enemies as individuals, or as members of different societies; political or religious. And the sentiment compounded of hatred and enmity, not having a name of its own, may take the name of either of its parts. Accordingly, in Scripture we find it said, in one place, Gen. xxii. 17. that the descendants of Abraham should possess the gates of their enemics; and in another, Gen. xxiv. 60. that they should possess the gate of those that hated them. The Psalmist repeatedly uses as synonymous "enemies" and "those that hate." "I hate them right sore," says he, "even as though they were mine enemies. (See Psalm xxxviii. 19. Ixix. 4. cxxxix. 22. Compare Lev. xxvi. 17. Deut. vii. 15.) Hating the Lord seems to mean being enemies to the Religion of Moses; or to Jehovah, as opposed to the Deities of the idolatrous nations. When (1 John iii. 15.)