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Papias conversed with the disciples of the apostle about the beginning of the second century. He speaks of the gospels of Matthew and Mark as extant, and written by them *
Justin Martyr, A. D. 150. mentions the gospels as universally received and read in the congregations in his time. He must have conversed with Christians who were old men, and from them have learned that the gospels were extant when they were young. 0i Απόστολοι (says he) εν τοϊς γενομένοις υπ' αυτών απομνημονεύμασιν, & καλείται Ευα/γέλια, έτως σαρέδωκαν-And again, Τα απομνημονεύματα των 'Αποςόλων αναγινώσκεται. Αpol. 1. And his citations from the four gospels, from the epistles of St Paul, and from the Revelation, shew to a demonstration that he had them as we now have them, in the main.
In the interval between A. D. 70. and Justin, are the authors called apostolical, as Clemens, Hermas, Barnabas, Ignatius. These authors make use of some of the gospels and epistles, and allude to them ; which makes them highly valuable, and serviceable to the Christian cause. We cannot suppose that they had the inclination, we may positively affirm that they had not the capacity to forge them. Their own writings
Barnabas, in his Epistle, makes use of Matthew, Luke, John, and the Epistle to the Romans,
Clemens, in his first Epistle, makes mention of St Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, and takes passages from Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Ephesians, 1 and 2
For yet a little while, and he that shall come, will come," do's. Hell X. 36.
Euseb. Eccl. Hist, üi. 39. sub finem.
of Peter, 1 Timothy, 1 and 3 of John, Revelations, and particularly from the Epistle to the Hebrews. He also speaks of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul.
In his second Epistle, 'if it be bis, there are passages from Matthew, Luke, 1 Corinthians, and Hebrews.
Hermas says, i. 2. Juravit Dominus per Filium suum : Qui denegaverit filium f se--ipsi denegaturi sunt illum
from Matth. x. 33.
1. 6. Cum ergo venerit tribulatio, propier divitias suas & negotiationes, abnegant Dominum-from Matt. xiii. 21.
1. 9. Videte ergo vos qui gloriamini in divitüs, ne forte ingemiscant ü qui egent, gemitus eorum ascendat ad Dominum from James.v. 4.
Ib. Qui amatis primos consessus; from Matt. xxiii. 6. Melius erat illis non nasci. from Matt. xxvi. 24.
II. Mand. v. Spiritus sanctus, qui in te est, angustiabitur ; from Ephes. iv. 30.
Si resistis Diabolo, fugiet a te ; from James iv. 7.
II. Mand. vi. Φοβήθελε τον Κύριον τον δυνάμενον σώσαι και αποtirar from James iv. 12.
Such references should have been marked in the editions of the apostolical fathers.
In the apostolical constitutions also, and in the recognitions and the homilies of Pseudo-Clemens there are many passages taken from the New Testament; but as these books are not so ancient as they pretend to be, I pass them by for the present, and shall pay my respects to them in another place.
The numerous and large citations from the LXX, and the New Testament, in the Constitutions, are however so far useful, that they help to shew how those places stood in the copies of the fourth century, and perhaps somewhat earlier.
Ignatius, who in his old age, suffered under Trajan, about A. D. 107. and who was contemporary with the apostles, in his genuine epistles alludes to the gospels of Matthewe, of Like, and of John; Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, those to the Colossians, Galatians, Philippians, and Ephesians, the first Epistle of Peter, &c.
Besides the places which are referred to in the margin of the Patres. Apostolici, I have observed several, upon a cursory perusal, to which, I am sensible, more might be added.
Ignatius ad Ephes. Merunlad övles O¢6. from Ephes, v, I. Ib. év alucle Otš. perhaps from Acts xx. 28.
Ib. τε υπέρ ημων εαυτόν ανενε/κόνος Θεώ προσφοραν και θυσίαν. from Ephes. v. 2.
Ib. ii. óraíuny vxw, from Philem. 20.
1b. V. ει δ' ενός και δευτέρα προσευχή τοσαύτην ισχυν έχι. perhaps from James v. 16. or Mat. xviii, 19, 20,
Ib. ix.-aiton veõ Tlalposcis cixadourin--from Ephes. ii, 20.
Ib. xiii. témos Sè cycan, from 1 Tim. i. 5.
Ib, xiv. άμεινον έσι σιωπάν και είναι, ή λαλώνια μη αναι: καλών Tò diddoxeir, iar ó né'w mom from Mat. v, 19. vii. 21.
Ib. XV. εδέν λανθάνει τον Κύριον--perhaps from Ηeb. iv. 12, 19. or Revel. ii. 23. or from other places.
Ib. xvii. tou apzovlos os añvos rétr. from John xiv. 30. and Ephes. ii. 2.
Ib. um aixuanalíon vuês. from Rom. vii. 23.
Ib. xix. μυσήρια-σώς εν εφανερώθη-from 1 Τim. iii. 16.
Ib. xx. fræ äplov xawles. from I Cor. x. 17.
Ib. xxi. coxalos y Twv éxci wisw. from 1 Cor. xv. 9, pr Mat. xx, 26, 27.
Ib. xii. Ignatins takes notice of St Paul's epistle to the Ephesians, and of his martyrdom ; and as he was writing to the same church, he often alludes, as you see, to the apostle's letter. * Ad Magnes. i. αγάπης, ής δεν προκέκριται. from 1 Cor. xiii. 13.
Ib. iii.-νεωτερικών τάξιν.-perhaps from 1 Τim. iv. 19. Ib. V. ας τον ίδιον τόπον. from Acts i. 25. Ib. ίδιον χαρακτήρα. perhaps from Rec. xiii. 17. Ib. vii.-είς ας, μία ελπίς-from Ephes. iv. 3, 4, 5, Ib. viii. Η κατά νόμον ζωμεν, ομολογεμεν χάριν μη ειληφέναι. from Gal. v. 4.
Ib. Χ. υπέρθεσθε την κακήν ζύμην την σαλαιωθείσαν. from 1 Cor, V. 7.
1b. xiii. καλευοδωθητι. ευοδεσθαι, a verb used in the New Testament. .
Ad Trall. vii. uni qurig uivois. a word often used by St Paul. .
Ib. viii. μηδείς [τι] καλα τα πλησία εχέτω. from Mat. ν. 23.
Ib. Χ. -ώσσερ τινές-λέγεσι-εγώ τί δεδεμαι; τι εύχομαι θηριομαχήσαι ; &c. from 1 Cor. XV. 15, 32. .
Ib. xi. εκ εισίν φυλλα Πατρός. from Mat. XV. 13. Ib. xii. ίνα μή αδόκιμος ευρεθώ. from 1 Cor. ix. 27. Ad Roman. ii.-τ σσονδισβηναι Θεώ. from 9 Tim. iv. 6. Ib. ii. τα και φαινομενα πρόσκαιρα τα δε μη βλεπόμενα αιώνια.. from 2 Cor. iv. 18.
Ib. vi. Tí gs' wpercita&c. from Mat. xvi. 26. But perhaps this is an interpolation. It is not in the old version.
Ib. vii. ο έμός έρως έσαύρωται---ύδωρ δε ζων, λαλεν εν εμοίfrom Gal. vi. 14. John iv. 14.
Ib. ix. έκτρωμα. from 1 Cor. XV. 8.
Ad Philadelph. vi.-ÖTo ibaigns á tiver from 2 Cor. xii. 16.
Ib. ix. aútès v Supce, from John x. 7.
1b. Χ. τα δεσμά με-έκ έπαισχύνθήθε, read επησχύνθη1ε. from 2 Tim. i. 16.
Ib, έδε υμας επαισχυνθήσεται Χριςός. from Mark viii. 38, pr Luke ix. 26.
The Epistle to Polyearp, which is the last, is also inferior to the rest : there is some reason to suspect that it is not genuine.
Ad Philadelph. v.-στοσφυγων το εύα/γελίω, ως σαρκί Ιησύ, και τους αποδόλους ως πρεσβυθερίων εκκλησίας. Confugiens ad Evangelium tanquam ad carnem Jesu, et ad Apostolos ver lut ad Ecclesiæ Presbyterium, fc.
Quce verba videntur de evangeliis et apostolicis scriptis intelligenda ; ita ut hoc velit Ignatius, cognoscendce divince voluntatis causa, se confugere ad evangelia, quibus crederet non secus ac si Christus ipse in carne, hoc est, in eo statu quo fuit in terris, conspicuus et etiamnum apud homines viveus, eos sermones, qui in evangeliis leguntur, ore suo proferret ; tum etiam ad scripta Apostolorum, quos
habebat quasi totius Christianæ ecclesiæ presbyterium, sub Christo omnium Episcopo, quod cætus Christianos omnes, quid credendum sit, doceret. Unde quanti fierent libri sacri Novi Testamenti, hisce temporibus, satis liquet. Addit : Sed et Prophetas amamus, quia ipsi nunciarunt, quæ pertinent ad evangelium, id sperarunt, atque expectarunt. Quæ respiciunt Vetus Testamentum, prout scriptum exstat, nam aliunde Prophetae Ignatio innotescere non potuerant. Nec leriter prætermittendum, ab eo, primo quidem loco Novi Testamenti scripta, per quce Christiani sumus, memorari, quasi perfugium suum; secundo vero Veteris Libros, quia ex iis Novum confirmari potest. Clericus, Hist. Eccl. p.