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not again name this eminent man, well-informed men? Cuvier pays a well without expressing our admiration merited compliment to Professor Buckof his genius and industry, and our clear of these whirlpools of fantastic opi:
land, for steering his bark of observation pleasure at seeing a recent edition nions, in which so many have perished. of his letters, accompanied with M. Cuvier calls this distinguished geolovaluable remarks and illustrations gist, “ a philosopher who does honour to by the late Henry De La File.
geology by precise and consistent observa
tions, as well as by the steadiest opposition Of Geology in general, we may to random hypotheses;' and in geology, confidently affirm with the present these “ random hypotheses' have been alwriter, that, so far as it can be most as numerous as the authors who considered as established science, Nothing can be more opposed to true sci
have written on this branch of science. it contains nothing contrary to ence, than to pronounce on the priority of Scripture. But, with him, we may formation, or the comparative age of rocks, go further, and supported by such from either their structure or the organic high authorities as De Luc, Pro- remains they present the entire quesfessor Buckland, Mr. Young, and andre Brongniart thus propounds his opi
it M. others, differing among themselves nion: “In ihuse cases where characters on many points, yet on this point derived from the nature of the rocks are agreed, may add, that its research- opposed to those which we derive from ores have afforded much valuable ganic remains, I should give the prepon
derance to the latter.' This seems to us and interesting corroboration of to imply au admission, that nothing defithe sacred narrative.
nite can be inferred from the nature of the In accordance with these views, rocks; moreover, that between the nature our Author remarks:
of the rock, and the organic remains, there
may be a palpable discrepancy; and that “ While we profess the highest respect these may be even at complete antipodes for the valuable researches of a Cuvier, a with each other. The event has proved, Brongniart, a Buckland, a Ledgwick, a from what we have already mentioned, Greenough, a Lyell, and many others, we that no evidence as to priority, can be obconsider that they are not infallible. We tained from the nature of the fossil remuch esteem the interesting facts which mains displayed in particular strata. In they have presented; but their deductions addition to what has been said on this submay not always correspond with the legi. ject, we may further state, that encri. timate requirements of inductive truth; nites, entrochites, and pentacrinites are and it is adınitted on all hands, that our found in clay slate, grauwacke, transition advancement in geology must extend very limestone, alpine limestone, lias, muschelfar beyond our present attainments, before kalk, and chalk. It may be reasonably we have any right to think about the asked, how these three species of fossils structure of a theory. Geology was for- could indicate any particular formation, merly called a "system of paradoxes.". Is when they are found in so many types and it consistent with induction, to overlook structures of rocks altogether different? the only authentic record of the infant If they would go to prove any thing at history of the world, and yet introduce all, it would be that of a contemporaneous eastern fables, because they happen to ex- for:nation ; but certainly not distinct ceed the limits prescribed by the Mosaic epochas. The same observation applies to cosmogony, and dance to the tune of mil. madrepores, belemnites, &c., which are lions of years; and that because such a equally diversified in their abodes. It fol. term of years has been preconceived to be lows, therefore, that they afford no clue necessary? This takes for granted the whatever, either as to the order of creathing that remains to be proved, and is in lion,' or priority in the question of the direct variance with the maxims of induc. 'epochas of formation.' We find the same tive science. It will be time enough to evidence when we take up the fossil-bones grant the requirement, when positive and of quadrupeds, in their more complete and substantial facts shall have proved it to be perfect organization. To this interesting necessary; but we deny the concession on topic we shall again recur. We therefore the mere dictum of preconceived opinion, infer as a matter of fact, that the theory or bold assumption We cannot establish of successive development is founded in our premises better than by referring to error. Certain organic remains have been geologists themselves. Are not the pro- considered peculiar to certain formations, teus forms of geological speculations, sys. at once supplying data to determine the tems of geology, and theories of the world, identity of such formations in remote at this moment, the laughing-stock of countries, and becoming a chronometer to
determine the relative epochas of forma. quadrupeds and the indigenous species of tions; but this is altogether illusory; and shells found along with them, had a conyet, these have been propounded with an temporaneous existence in Yorkshire, (a effrontery sufficient to overawe, for a time, fact which Mr. Lyell justly considers to be the disciple of truth. These errors, of vast importance in geological science,) though now completely exploded, are still has certainly been demonstrated by the however, by some, promulgated at the pre. Rev. W. V. Vernon, who had a pit' sunk senl moment as truths. It is,' says Mr. to the depth of upwards of two hundred Lyell, in a foot note,'an encouraging cir- feet through undisturbed strata, in which cumstance, that the cultivators of science the organic remains of the Mammoth were in our own country, have begun to appre. found embedded, together with shells, in a ciate the true value of the principles of deposit which seems to have resulted from reasoning most usually applied to geolo tranquil waters. Mr. Vernon considers gical questions. He then adverts to the these phenomena as proving, that there expression, a geological logician, used by has been but little, if any change of temthe President of the Geological Society, perature in the climate of Britain since the in an address to its members, and adds :- Mammoth lived there. Dr. Schouw, of • A smile was seen on the countenance of Copenhagen, had come to a similar consome of the auditors, while many of the clusion as to the climate of Palestine, from members, like Cicero's augurs, could not calculating the mean temperature necesresist laughing; so ludicrous appeared the sary to the growth of the palm. The date association of geology and logic. It is al. palm is as successfully cultivated now in most unnecessary to say, that, however Palestine, as in the earliest period of the doctrine of repeated destruction, and which we have any account. The city of as repeated creation, might coalesce with palms, or Jericho, was so called from the the slumbers and waking hours of the my. groves of palms in its vicinity; while pa. thology of Menu, it laid the axe to the gan historians amply confirm what sacred very root of the volume of Revelation. history has so unequivocally described. Those have been greatly deceived, who Thus there seems no legitimate ground to expected to see the order of creation re. suppose, either that mammoths were nongistered in the rocks of the globe; who contemporaneous with fossil remains of supposed that zoophytes were historic existing genera and species; or that the medallions of the most ancient forma climate of the globe has materially changed tions; that other rocks, agreeably to their since the era in which mammuths lived. presumed relative age, carried the series The indiscriminate mixture of the higher from this point upwards, until it termi. types of organization with the lower types nated in the more perfect types of orga- of animal formation, bids defiance to their nization displayed in quadrupeds; and that being legitimately considered as a test in all these had been swept away before the the decision of the question of the compacreation of quadrumanous animals and of rative age of rocks. The date of formaman, just as if the destruction of inferior tions cannot, therefore, be determined tribes was the necessary pioneer for mon- from any particular description of organic keys and humanity. . . . . Worlds of liv. remains, because the same organic reing beings alternating with worlds of death, mains are found in other strata and other destruction and death supervening before formations. The obvious inferences from the creation of man and the first trans. these premises are, that, 1. The theory of gression, were the opinions of geologists.'” the successive development of animal
forms has not the shadow of proof; 2. "We believe that no quadrumanous The various types of organization were animals, such as the ape or monkey, have contemporaneous; and as they now are, ever been found fossil in the great forma. so they have ever been; 3. That geologitions of the globe ; but it by no means fol- cal facts, so far from countenancing an luws from hence, that the discovery is not entire change of climate, prove the very yet to come. Quadrumanous animals are reverse; and it follows, therefore, 4. entirely tropical, having their dwelling in That tropical vegetation, and tropical zootrees. One of the most important of re. logy, the organic wreck of which has come cent discoveries in geology, is the fact of from every quarter of the globe, must the bones of the MAMMOTH having been have been transported by the violent ac. found at North Cliffe in Yorkshire, in a tion of the currents of an universal de. formation entirely lacustrine ; while all luge, which has certainly circumfused the the land and fresh-water shells in this for glove."-pp. 111-113. mation, thirteen in number, have been accurately identified with species and varie- Upon the interesting inquiry reties now existing in that county. Bones specting fossil remains of man, the of the bison, whose habitat is now a cold, Author has the following remarks. or at any rate a temperate clime, have been found in the same place. That these
" It has often beon asserted, that man
from never having been found in the state operation.' Let us examine how Mr. Lyof a fossil, must needs belong to a creation ell meets his own inferences. Now these comparatively recent, as the commence- objections,' says he,' would be unanswer. ment, perhaps, of what Mr. Lyell would able, if adduced against one who was call a geological cycle;' which, however, contending for the absolute uniformity we confess our inability to comprehend; throughout all time of the succession of and if there is one more decided attempt sublunary events. Then follows an asto strike at the very foundation of Reve. surance, that he is not disposed to indulge lation than another, it is this. But it is in the philosophical reveries of the Egypnot more repugnant to Revelation, than tian and Greek sects. He, however, says to sound philosophy and right reason; nor nothing about those of India. Shall we is there a single fact which can be brought call Mr. Lyell a 'geological logician:' and forward to warrant such an assertion. is this to be accepted as a specimen? If Suppose that nothing of the kind had real. Revelation is to be encountered with this ly been found, would it not be rash, in the kind of Logic, it may be safely met with present infant state of geological science, pity and contempt."-pp. 116–118. to infer that such may not be found ? And yet, this has been received amongst
The Author then states the facts geologists as a species of axiom. When connected with the most striking the vast diluvial beds of clay and gravel, cases of human fossils, for which and the superior strata in Asia, shall have
we must refer to his book. Upon been explored, it will be time enough to venture on such a conclusion; but to ha.
the strength of these facts he conzard this opinion at present, is of a piece tends, in opposition to the mass of with the sweeping assumptions of geolo- geologists, for the equal antiquity gists from first to last.”
of human bones with those of an“ We pity the evasive shifts to which those who reject Revelation are reduced, tediluvian animals; and expresses in considering this question. Let us take his concurrence with Mr. GranMr. Lyell’s remarks. “But another and a
But another and a ville Penn, Mr. Young, and others, far more difficult question may arise out who think that, in addition to parof the admission that man is comparative- tial changes, both ante and postly of modern origin. Is not the interference of the human species (!) it may be diluvian, one universal deluge is asked, such a deviation from the antece- quite sufficient to account for the dent course of physical events, that the facts and phenomena of geology; knowledge of such a fact, tends to destroy and that, " to suppose any
more, is all our confidence in the uniformity of the order of nature, both in regard to time
a positive infraction of Sir Isaac past and future? If such an innovation Newton's celebrated maxim, that could take place after the earth had been if one explanation is sufficient, it is exclusively inhabited for thousands of superfluous and unnecessary to as.. ages by inferior animals, why should not other changes as extraordinary and un
He then proceeds: precedented happen from time to time? " Besides the authorities above menIf one new cause was permitted to super. tioned, it is cheering to learn that M. vene, differing in kind and energy from Constant Provost, has lately laid before any before in operation, why might not the Academy of Sciences, a treatise on the others have come into action at different great geological question,-Whether the epochs? Or what security have we that continents which are now inhabited, bare they may not arise hereafter? If such be or have not been repeatedly submerged? the case, how can the experience of one This Author maintains firmly, that there period, even though we are acquainted has been only one great inundation of the with all the possible effects of the then earth; and that the various remains of existing causes, be a standard to which we animals and plants, which liave given rise can refer all natural phenomena of other to the supposition of successive inundaperiods?' Now these are certainly very tions, have floated to the places where heavy reasons, and entirely neutralize they are now occasionally found. Every Mr. Lyell's assumptions; (for they are no , successive investigation, and every new better;) while our Author, in these very discovery weaken the speculations of geoadmissions, becomes suicidal to the whole logists; which are, at the present mo. drift of the argument for which his volume ment, only, at the best, ' a bowed wall and was written. The title of this otherwise a tottering fence:' and though they may, certainly interesting work is this :-Prin- for a little longer, be able to satisfy thenciples of Geology, being an Attempt to selves in the principles of geological loexplain the former Changes of the Earth's gic,' we doubt whether they will be able Surface, by reference to Causos now in to convince others. None who are capa. ble of reflecting, will be disposed to aban- certainly exists?
If, in like mandon Revelation, the proof of which is ada
ner, every device which contramant at every link, for the fooleries of a sceptical geology; and if there are any
dicts the statements of the Bible, who, on a calm survey of geological facts, speedily comes to nought, are we can discover a solitary one counter to the not to revere those statements as palpable truths of the Mosaic cosmogony, the truth which finally must prehis opinion is at antipodes with our own; vail? The exposure of those theo-we view things through media that are altogether different.”—pp. 119–122.
ries, therefore, is justly placed in
the work before us, among the deIt has already been stated, that monstrations of the truth of Scripthe work, besides its reference to ture. They are reductions to abthe present state of geology, com- surdity, not less convincing than prises an appeal, in confirmation the most positive proof. of the Scriptures, to other branch- We have dwelt at the greater es of science, to historic fact, to length upon the volume before us, rudiments of tradition, to sculp- as being the work of a layman detures, gems, coins, and medals. In voted to literature and science, addition to the direct confirmation and as it seems, in these times, of Scripture facts, the Author ar- peculiarly desirable to encourage gues likewise from the dissipation gentlemen of the Author's characof those many cherished theories ter and attainments to come forof successive sceptics, which are ward courageously, to oppose the ever exhaling before the advanc- growing scepticism of the day, ing sun of science. Now when to detect the sophistries, and to we witness, one after another, every repel the daring insults levelled at theory, however ingenious soever, the only system of religious truth which has been devised in opposi- which ever professed to cheer the tion to the facts of Scripture, heart of man with the substantial proved to be incapable of standing hope of a blessed immortality. the test of increasing knowledge; The work is very miscellaneous, when we find them severally, in and, we must add, has been comtheir day, entertained with all the piled without much regard to meconfidence of scientific certainty, ihodical arrangement. It is, howand vaunted as undoubted proof's ever, full of interesting facts and of error in the word of God; but, observations; and one which we by and by, convicted, withdrawn can cordially recommend, as adaptfrom observation, willingly con- ed not less to please than to insigned to forgetfulness, or excit struct and convince. Had it been ing shame in their former advo- entitled “ Illustrations,” rather cates; may we not safely conclude than a “Demonstration of the from such repeated failures, that Truth of Revelation,” the desigthe facts which they were intend- nation would have been, perhaps, ed to discredit, will defy every fu- not less invitting and more apture assault? May we not infer propriate. The book is got up in this consequence, just as certainly a very respectable style, and is as, from finding that every struc- embellished with several plates, ture not in accordance with the consisting of fac-similes of the laws of equilibrium derived from various existing monuments to gravity, becomes unstable, and which the appeal is made, and threatens speedy ruin, we feel as- comprises much valuable matter sured that the force of gravity in a convenient compass. Ch. Adv.-Vol. X.
Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.
The Moon.—The substance of the changes from it have been also asserted. moon is more known to us than that of the We learn from Plutarch, that the ancients brighter luminary. Its volume is forty- believed the moon to produce many singunine times less ihan the volume of the lar results, which he enumerates. Hence, earth. There is ground of supposing that however beautiful and interesting the all is solid at its surface, for it appears, in moonlight scenery of both heaven and powerful telescopes, as an arid mass on earth is felt to be by all, it will always be which some have thought they could per- wise to recollect that the night is our naceive the effects, and even the explosions, tural and appointed season of retirement of volcanoes. There are mountains on and repose. - Sharon Turner's Sacred Histhe surface of the moon, which rise to tory of the World. nearly the height of three miles, and it has been inferred, that it has deep ca
Dykes of Holland.-Enormous mounds vities like the basins of our seas. Cas
of earth are piled up as barriers against pian lakes have been supposed in it.
the encroachments of the sea, which, at But it has either no atmosphere, or it
full tide, rises, in some places, forty feet is of such extreme rarity, as to exceed
above the level of the land. The fortificathe nearest vacuum we can produce by
tion of this country against the water, was our best constructed air pumps; so that
undertaken as early as the time of Claudius no terrestrial animal could breathe alive Drusus, who constructed the first of the upon its surface. If, then, it be inha- dykes, that form the bulwark of the Holbited, it is not by beings who have bo
landers; which have ever since been the dies like either men or any of our ani.
wonder of Europe, and a lasting monumated race. The lunar population must
meut of industry and perseverance. As be of a far more aerial naiure than our we walked at the foot of these artificial present selves; or our most delicate fel- mountains, gradually sloping to its sumlow-creatures. Only sylphs, spirits, or
mit, where the breadth is about thirty feet, angels, suit such an ethereal medium.
the sea was washing its opposite side far It has a great number of invariable
above our heads. There was something in spots, which prove that the moon always the sounds of the waves, and the thought presents to us the same hemisphere, and of their elevated proximity, which in. revolves on its axis in a period equal to
spired a fear that they might involve us that of its revolution round the earth. Its in destruction, by breaking down the " tall dark and bright parts have given rise to
rampire” that the idea that it has seas, islands, and continents; but it is now doubled whether it
“ Spreads its long arms against the watry
rear." has any water at all; and it has been sup. posed that, if it had any oceans, the supe- But this fear was momentary, and yielded rior attraction of the earth, especially to admiration, as we contemplated the when in conjunction with the sun, would strength and skilful design of the dyke. draw the aqueous fluid into a deluge over - The dykes vary in size and elevation a large part of its surface. The light of according lo their situation.-Formed of the moon is at least 300,000 times more stones and adhesive soil, they are planted feeble than that of the sun. Froin this towards the sea with reeds, which collect inferiority, the lunar rays, when collected the sand that is thrown up. Thus rein the most powerful mirrors, produce no ceiving an annual accession of matter, the sensible effect on the thermometer. In- original structure is protected, while its deed, they seem to have a cold producing breadth and stability increase. Where agency, according to the experience of more than usual danger exists, a second practical men, though philosophers have and interior dyke is raised to secure the not yet ascertained the fact by their di- country in case the outer one should give rect experiments. That they have a pe- way. The lwo are made parallel, and the culiar and salutary influence on the ani- intermediate space serves as a channel, mal frame, appears to have been actually commanded by sluices, to carry off an ocexperienced by some of our countrymen. casional flood; or, as on one occasion, to Other nations declare the same.
inundate an hostile army. The plains Its peculiar effects have been so often thus snatched from the legitimate domiobserved in mental derangement, that this nion of the sea, are intersected by canals malady has been named lunacy from and fortified with locks. These, by a hapthem, and medical men, experienced in py contrivance, allow the superfluous wasuch cases, have assured me, that in many ter to flow into the ocean, while the efthere is a visible excitement at the forts of the intrusive waves only serve to changes of this luminary. Almospherical close more firmly the barriers.