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inducements. This may be thought -all those which describe or furby some a priori reasoning, and not nish the means of teaching men inductive. "But we have a right to intelligence, which, it will be reause this argument, if we have as- dily perceived, are very numerous; certained a fact, which is implied and all of them necessarily imply in the supposition of a revelation a capacity for knowing. This is from God to men. Need any what we mean, and what we have thing more be added, to show that explained, as the faculty of underthe implication is all contained in standing. Here let it be asked and the fact of a revelation to mind? the question pondered well, if men Would not the idea of a revelation have no faculty of knowing, why to men, incapable of understand should they be taught? Why else ing, feeling, or acting, be absurd? should God, their Maker, teach Nothing can be more plain. Now them? if the facts, that men are capable We are well aware that the terms of knowing, feeling, and acting, knowledge, understanding, intelliare proved by this general argu- gence, and others which imply ment, the only remaining step in them, are variously used in the the argument is to show that the English translation of the Scripfacts prove;the mind to have these tures, but this will by no means distinct faculties. This we think prove that they have no defined is plain without any further illus- meaning. The same remark is tration.

true of the Hebrew and Greek But it may be important to exa- words which are translated by mine the manner in which these these terms. Understanding has faculties are recognised in the do- several significations in the Bible. cuments of revelation. We wish Sometimes it means a faculty emto proceed on sure ground, and as- ployed in obtaining knowledge, as certain the truth as it is contained Prov. iii. 5. “Lean not unto thine in the sacred pages; also to learn own understanding.” Prov.xix. 25. as definitely as practicable, the "Reprove one that hath understandcorrespondence of facts in philo- ing"-also Prov. XXX. 2. “ And sophy with those of revelation. have not the understanding of a

When we look into the sacred' man.” Isaiah xxix. 14. “The undocuments, to ascertain what is derstanding of their prudent men said, which expresses or implies shall be hid.” Luke xxiv. 45. the faculties or capabilities of “Then opened he(Christ) their unmind, we shall find the passages derstanding”—and Eph. iv. 18. so full and numerous, that a selec- “ Having the understanding darktion will be difficult. We request, ened.” Sometimes it is used for therefore, the reader, after he shall the exercise of the faculty, or the attend to the examples which we actual process of acquiring knowshall adduce, to bear this thought ledge, as 1 Kings vii. 14. “Filled in mind while reading the Bible, with wisdom and understanding." that he may be able to test its cor- Ps. cxix. 104. Through thy rectness.

precepts I get understanding"Take now the faculty of under- Prov. iii. 13. “Happy is the man standing, and inquire, what saith that getteth understanding," the Scriptures on this subject? Sometimes it is used for knowHere we have all those passages ledge acquired, as Luke i. 3. and expressions which ascribe “Having had perfect understandknowledge to men-all those which ing of all things, &c.” 1 Cor.i. 19. command them to acquire know- “and will bring to nothing the unledge-all those which reproach derstanding of the prudent." It them for neglecting its acquisition is sometimes used for all the Ch. Adv.-Vol. X.


mind's faculties, as Job xx. 3. If it were at all necessary to re“ The spirit of my understanding cord in this article the process causeth me to answer.” Dan. iv. and result of a critical examina34. “Mine understanding return- tion into the meaning of the Heed unto me"-and Rom. i. 31. brew and Greek words translated “Without understanding, covenant by the term understanding, we breakers”—and sometimes it is would give the analysis of the used for true religion, as Col. i. 9. words and phrases, together with “In all wisdom and spiritual un- the various uses of the words, wbich derstanding”-and Col. ii. 2. would bring us to the same con“ Unto all riches of the full assu- clusion stated above. But of this rance of understanding.” It is there can be no necessity, except entirely clear, that this term must, for a specimen and a few referin some of those instances, be used ences. The case is so exceedingfiguratively; and the question to ly plain, that every candid mind be decided is, what is its proper will perceive and admit its truth. meaning? This question must be The principal Hebrew word used decided from the common and for understanding is va, which raprevailing use of the word in the dically as a verb in Kal, signifies Bible, or from its technical signi- to distinguish, to discern, to unfication. As to its technical mean- derstand. When it is used as a ing, we need not say much, since it substantive, it means understandis perfectly obvious that as a par- ing, discernment, knowledge. Let ticiple, it means apprehending the any one, capable of examining objects of knowledge, and as a those passages in the original, substantive, it means the faculty of which we have already quoted mind which apprehends. It is from the Old Testament, investionly necessary further to say, what gate their meaning, and he will we think every attentive reader not fail to recognise the truth and will readily perceive, that the most full force of what we have assertcommon uses of the term under- ed. By recurring to Taylor's Hestanding, in the Scriptures, are brew Concordance, it will be seen two, for the faculty, and its exercise that this word is used as a subin the acquisition of knowledge. stantive more than eighty.times in Now from this obvious fact, which the Old Testament, with many difcorresponds with the technical ferent shades of meaning. Somemeaning of the substantive and times it indicates knowledge simparticiple, it is fair and conclusive ply, sometimes wisdom, as in to affirm, that the scriptural uses Psalm cxxxvi. 5, and Prov. xxii. of the term designate the mental 4. Sometimes it means true relifaculty as its proper meaning, and gion, as in Prov. ii. 3; iii. 13; iv. the exercise of that faculty as its 1, 5, 7; but in many of the uses it secondary meaning. But if any plainly indicates the intellectual one should insist that the mental power or faculty; and in every one exercise is the proper signification of the whole, such a faculty is neof the term, we shall still be cessarily implied. The conclusion brought to the conclusion that may therefore be stated thus; the there is a faculty so called in the revelation of God teaches that man Scripture, and that it is so deno- has a faculty, which we call underminated from the character of its standing, distinct from all other exercises. This will vary but lit- faculties, and distinct from all tle the result, although it accords mental exercises. The plain connot in our estimation with the ac- struction of both languages, (Hecustomed use of language, or the brew and English] conveys this common style of the Scriptures. truth in multitudes of passages,


and every use of the term necessa- in several senses in the holy scriprily implies the fact.

tures, to a few of which we shall If we now examine the Greek of advert, but it will be our main obthe New Testament, the result ject here, and entirely sufficient, to will be the same. The words show that it is often used to denote principally used for the intellectual a faculty of mind, and in such a faculty are, vous, vonua, drevorce and manner that it cannot with any CUVEGIS. Of these, vous is used more propriety be applied to any thing. frequently than the others, it being else, except a faculty of feeling. If found twenty-four times in the this be shown it will establish the New Testament. The four fol- philosophical fact, and we think, lowing passages have the meaning prove all other uses of the term restricted to the faculty of know- to be subordinate and secondary ing. Luke xxiv. 45. Rom. xiv. 5. to this. Apocalypse xiii. 18; xvii. 9. All In the Hebrew scriptures the the rest necessarily imply the same principal word for heart is bab. fact. . The word vonua, is read but There are, it is true, several words six times in the New Testament, occasionally used to express the but it is used distinctively in Phil. same idea in some of its relations, iv. 7, for the understanding of but they need not be here examined. those who are kept. Arcvoid is The radical meaning of 335, seems read thirteeen times, and used dis- to be applied to the physical heart, tinctively in Eph. i. 18—iv. 18. or muscular organ, and so applied Heb. viii. 10—xx. 16. 1 John v.

on account of its vibratory motion, 20. Συνεσις is found in the Greek or pulsation. The abstract meanTestament only seven times. In ing, therefore, would be vibratory. Luke ii. 47, and 1 Cor. i. 19; it motion, but it is never used in the may be understood of the faculty, Hebrew scriptures abstractly.or if it be not necessarily so un- Heart, therefore, being its radical derstood it must imply the philo- meaning, as used in the bible, it sophical fact. Our limits would is proper to observe that it is apnot allow us to give the exegetical plied to several other things seconanalysis of these and several other darily, or figuratively. From the Greek words, which are used to position of that physical organ in denote either the faculty or its ex- the midst of the body, the word is ercises and acquirements. We only applied to the middle of heaven, refer to the passages and the prin- Deut. iv. 11.-to the midst of the ciples which must lead to the true sea, Prov. xxiii. 34., Jonah, ii. 3. result. They have led us to the It is often applied to the mind, and result stated above, viz. that the sometimes includes its every faculrevelation of God recognises and ty, action, passion, disposition, and confirms the truth of philosophy. affection. So it is used, Gen. viii. Throughout the Bible, God has 21, and many other passages. It treated men as possessing a fa. will be obvious to every reader of culty of knowing his communica- the Hebrew scriptures, that the tions to them. On this topic there word is more frequently applied to is an accumulation of evidence the mind, its faculties and affecand argument perfectly exhaust- tions, than to any and all other less. Every man who examines, things. While, therefore, it is true, will find it as clear and forcible that the Hebrew "language deas it is abundant.

scribes the motions and passions of We now inquire what the Scrip- the mind by the effects which they tures teach concerning the faculty produce upon the body, it is also which we call heart.

true that all the descriptions inThe term heart is doubtless used volve some mental faculty of feel

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ing or of being affected. To ascer- Kaedra is frequently used by all the tain the distinctive character of New Testament writers, and in va. this faculty, is our present object. rious senses. The different shades Take the following as a specimen of meaning in the use of this word of very many passages in which will be found to correspond with the word occurs distinctively, Ps. those already mentioned, as indixix. 9. “The statutes of the Lord cáted by the Hebrew (335) and with are right rejoicing the (35) heart.” the uses of the English word heart. Ps. xxxiv. 19. “The Lord is nigh It is not found at all in the New unto them that are of a broken (35) Testament, however indicating the heart.” Ps. ci. 5.-" him that hath muscular organ, whose vibration an high look and a proud (335) sends the blood through the arteheart will not I suffer." Prov. xiv. ries, and receives it through the 13. “Even in laughter the (35) veins, but this is undoubtedly the heart is sorrowful.Prov. xv. 15. radical meaning of the word, being “He that is of a merry (35) heart derived from a verb which signifies hath a continual feast.” Isah. xxx. to pour out. It is used for the 29. “Ye shall have-gladness of middle of the earth in Matth. xii. (235) heart.” Isah. xliv. 20. 40. But what concerns the predeceived (35) heart hath turned sent discussion is the distinctive him aside.” Jer. xvii. 9.

use of xagorce for the faculty of feel. (abo) heart is deceitful above all ing, from which all the affections things.” Ezek. xi. 19. “I will take proceed, and which is the source the stony (35) heart out of their of moral character. Take the few flesh.” Ezek.xviii.31.—"and make passages which follow to illustrate you a new (35) heart.” Nahum ii. our meaning. In Mark vi. 52, we 11.—"and the (351) heart “their heart (reedice) was harThese are sufficient to show that dened." chap. X. 5. “For the hardthe Hebrew word for heart is used ness of your heart (orange-xaedias for that which feels joy, contrition, he wrote you this precept;" and pride, sorrow, and gladness; and is the same sentiment is contained deceived, deceitful, and hard, or chap. xvi. 14. John xvi. 6, we have melts. All those definite and limit- the phrase “sorrow hath filled your ing expressions indicate the facul- heart (xapdræv), and verse 22, “ your ty of feeling in distinction from heart (xceedia) shall rejoice." See understanding, or the faculty which also, Acts ii. 26. “Therefore did knows. With the exception of my heart (ragdree) rejoice,” verse 37. deceiver and deceitful, none of them “they were pricked in their heart” could be applied to understanding (xasedice); also xxi. 13," what mean without violating all propriety of ye to weep and break my heart," language: nothing except a faculty (xapdrcev); Rom. ii. 5, “after thy of feeling can agree with the ap- hardness and impenitent heart (xuepropriate meaning of those terms. draev) treasurest up unto thyself Let any man substitute faculty of wrath;” ix. 2, “I have great heavi. feeling for heart in the above cited ness and continual sorrow in my passages of the English transla- heart,” (xaedic): and 2 Cor. ii. 4, tion, and the sense will not be al- “For out of much affliction and tered.

anguish of heart (ragdias) I wrote Let the inquiry be pursued in unto you.” These are a few of the New Testament, and learn its many passages in which xapdie is result. The examination of a single used to denote the faculty of feel. Greek word (xapdrce) will be suffi- ing, and when it cannot consistentcient for our present purpose, ly mean any thing else. It is enalthough some other words are tirely plain that there must be a used to indicate the same thing. permanent something, call it fa

be any

culty, or principle, or what we examination here, because the subplease, which is distinct from un- ject will again recur in a subsederstanding, and distinct from all quent article. We have now room mental exercises. The above asso- only to say some general things on ciated expressions which limit the this part of the subject. application, and define the mean- It is obvious that the terms for ing of heart, cannot be applied to will in the Hebrew, Greek, and mind in its general signification, English scriptures are used in vawithout perverting the intention of rious senses. As a matter of inthe Spirit; and they would make terpretation it is important to disnonsense if applied to understand- tinguish those meanings. Someing, or to any mental exercise. ' It times the meaning will be found to would express neither sense nor be equivalent to command, sometruth, to speak of a hard or pained times to express desire, at other understanding: and it would be times volition, and often the faculty still more absurd to speak of sor- of choosing. If it shall be found row filling their exercise, or of being on examination, that in some inpricked in their exercise. If there stances, the latter is its meaning,

distinction in lan age, be- the doctrine will be established, tween things and the motions of and it must have an important things; there must be in the lan- bearing on some speculations which guage of the bible distinctions be- are disturbing the church at the tween faculties and their exercises. present day. On the right interCan any one, who believes the di- pretation of those passages, which vine origin of the scriptures, enter- contain the recognition of the hutain the absurdity of ascribing to man will depends the settlement of the Holy Ghost such instruction as many controversies which have ofthis phraseology would convey, a de- ten disturbed the peace of the ceived, hard, and pained exercise, church. We dcem it, therefore, of desires of the exercise, &c. Nothing great importance, at the present can be more inconsistent than such day, to examine this subject with a supposition with the language of great care. This we propose to do the bible. Enough has been inti- in our next article. mated on this subject. Every man, In the mean time, let those who who examines the scriptures for take any interest in this discussion, himself, whose mind is not govern- apply some of the suggestions, reed by prejudice, and whose opi- lative to the discriminating use of nions and exercises are not guided the terms heart and understanding, by speculative theories, will per- to the scriptural use of the term ceive that the New Testament will. A few experiments in submost clearly recognises the exist- stituting the phraseology involvence of a distinct faculty of feeling ing the doctrine which we have denominated the heart.

stated for will, cannot fail to conAs we enter on the inquiry which vince them that any other meaning respects the will, it may be proper would be inadmissible in many into state the philosophical doctrine stances. Let them substitute heart contained in our essays, that it may for will, in those passages where be distinctly compared with the faculty or principle is intended, and scriptural instruction. The doc- the sense will be much perverted trine is this, the will is a distinct or destroyed. . faculty of choosing, and is always We are aware that the distincgoverned by the pleasure of the tion between the heart and will is heart.

esteemed by very many as either It will not be our object, at any of little consequence, or untrue. considerable length, to pursue this We hope to show that the scrip

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