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tinually in profligate company, you

“From the testimony of his capmust be debased in mind, and, in tain, and one of his messmates, we a manner, reduced to a state of learn that his conduct was good, heathenism. In some of your let- and such as to procure him much ters, I have observed you dashing, respect; and, from letters addressas it were, against the rocks of er to his father and his sister, a fatalism; suggesting as if you short time before his death, we thought you were appointed to hope still better things; we hope he such a course of life. in others I was led to see the error of his way, find you flattering yourself that and to make the Lord his refuge you are a penitent; when, perhaps, from the tempest and the storm. all the penitence you ever felt has “ His death, under such circumbeen the occasional melancholy of stances, was less painful to his remorse and fear.

friends than it would otherwise “My dear son! I am now near- have been; and, in a sermon ly fifty-five years old, and may soon preached the Lord's-day after the expect to go the way of all the intelligence was received, in alluearth! But, before I die, let me sion to this event, from Rom. X. teach you the good and the right 8, 9, his father seemed to take way. Hear the instructions of a comfort from three ideas: that, father.' You have had a large 1. The doctrine of free justificaportion of God's preserving good- tion by the death of Christ is suitness, or you had, ere now, perish- ed to sinners of all degrees. It asks ed in your sins. Think of this, not how long, nor how often, nor and give thanks to the Father of how greatly, we have sinned: if mercies, who has hitherto pre- we confess our sins, he is faithful served you. Think, too, how you and just to forgive us our sins. 2. have sequited him, and be ashamed It is suited to the helpless condition for all that you have done. Never- of sinners. We have only to look theless, do not despair! Far as and live. 3. It is suited to sinyou have gone, and low as you ners in the last extremity. It anare sunk in sin, yet if hence you swers to the promised mercy in return to God, by Jesus Christ, Deut. iv. 29: IF FROM THENCE thou you will find mercy. Jesus Christ seek the Lord thy God, thou shalt came into the world to save sin- find him. Some are far from home, ners, even the chief of sinners. If and have no friend, in their dying you had been ever so sober and moments, to speak a word of comsteady in your behaviour towards fort ***** but this is near! men, yet, without repentance to- When Jonah was compassed about wards God and faith in Christ, by the floods, when the billows and you could not have been saved; waves passed over him, he prayed and, if you return to God by him, to the Lord and the Lord heard though your sins be great and ag. him.” * gravated, yet will you find mercy.”

“ Here he was obliged to pause,

and give vent to his feelings by This affecting narrative cannot weeping; and many of the congrebe better concluded than in the gation, who knew the cause, wept words of the late Dr. Ryland:- with him! His heart was full,

“As this poor young man fore- and it was with difficulty he could boded, this was his last voyage. conclude, with solemnly charging He died off Lisbon, in March, the sinner to apply for mercy ere 1809, after a lingering illness, in it was too late; for, if it were rewhich he had every attention paid jected, its having been so near and him of which his situation would so easy of access, would be a swift admit.

witness against him.”

* * *


and transcend the design of these

articles. Radical Principles brought to the

nax is used in the following pas. Test of Revelation.

sages to express the exercise of We have already stated the doc- will: Lev. xxvi. 21.-"if ye walk trine to be examined in this arti- contrary unto me and will not cle, viz. the will is a distinct facul- hearken unto me.” | Chron. X. ty of choosing, and is always go- 4. “Then Saul said to his armourverned by the pleasure of the heart. bearer draw thy sword, and thrust The question to be settled is whe- me through therewith-but his arther this doctrine be recognised in mour-bearer would not." Chap.xi. the revelation of God. When this 19. When David longed for water shall be fairly and satisfactorily from the well of Bethlehem, and settled, the uses of the doctrine three men had jeoparded their lives will be obviously ascertained, and and brought it to him, he poured its importance more readily esti- it out to the Lord__"he would not mated.

drink it.” Ps. lxxxi. 11. “But my It will not be necessary to exa- people would not hearken to my mine all the passages of scripture, voice; and Israel would none of in which the will and its exercises me.” Isah. i. 19. “If ye be willing are indicated, in order to settle the and obedient, ye shall eat the good question. Nor have we room for of the land." Ezek. iii. 7. “ But a full analysis of those passages in the house of Israel will not hearken which the words are used figura- unto thee: for they will not heark. tively, for other faculties or their en unto me: for all the house of exercises. It is easy to see why Israel are impudent and hard heartthe term for will should be used, ed." These are a few of the pasin its various forms, and in all the sages in which this Hebrew word languages, for the exercises of mind is used to denote the exercise of without discrimination—for the will, but they are sufficient to deheart-or its exercises--and for termine three things: that the concommands, orders, or decrees, duct of men is directly the result which the mind may have made. of volition, that volition proceeds This will be evident from an exa- from a faculty of determination, mination of a few selections, out of and that the will is governed by multitudes found in the Old and the feelings of the heart. We are New Testaments.

not aware that this word is used in The principal Hebrew words its substantive form for the will, used to indicate will or its acts but as a verb it denotes the exerare, 17ox, 37), wb), nyn. These all cise, and is so associated in its occur, more or less frequently in connexion as to involve both the the Old Testament, to indicate the faculty and the law of its governwill or its exercises; and they are ment. In the specimens above used frequently in other senses. given, the word cannot answer to It is sufficient for our purpose to the future tense of the fact expressexamine a few passages where each ed, because both volition and obstiword occurs in the sense which in- nacy are involved in the thoughts dicates the human will. It might expressed. be more satisfactory to give a full VD) will be found in the follow. analysis of all the different mean- ing passages, and might be comings of the words above cited, and pared with many others of like the passages in which they occur, import. Exod. xxxv. 29. “The but we cannot now pursue that children of Israel brought a willing course: besides, if we had room, offering unto the Lord, every man it would be a tedious examination, and, woman, whose heart made .נדב portant use and meaning of

them willing to bring for all man- tations; these show distinctly a ner of work, which the Lord had recognition of the doctrine. commanded to be made by the For the same meaning of 1797 we hand of Moses.” i Chron. xxviii. direct only to the three following 21. After David had given Solo- passages as sufficient for the purmon, his son, the pattern of the pose. Levit. xix. 5.—"if ye offer house of the Lord, he said to his a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto son, “there shall be with thee for the Lord, ye shall offer it at your all manner of workmanship every own will.Chap. xxii. 19.

Ye willing skilful man, for any man- shall offer at your own will a male ner of service.” In chap. xxix. 5. without blemish of the beeves, of David said " who then is willing to the sheep, or of the goats.” Again, consecrate his service this day un- verse 29. “And when ye will offer to the Lord?” Ezra, iii. 5. In the a sacrifice of thanksgiving unto the account of the “set feasts of the Lord, offer it at your own will." Lord that were consecrated,” it is That here is a recognition of the said that the people brought their dotrine, we think no one can raofferings to the priests, and they tionally doubt, who will examine “ offered the continual burnt-offer the passages and interpret them ing" and of the feast; and “of eve- according to their obvious meanry one that willingly offered a free- ing and connexion. will offering unto the Lord.”

The New Testament abounds These inay suffice for one im- with the full recognition of the

. same doctrine, but we shall conThey show conclusively the same tent ourselves with the examinathings as stated under 70x; volition tion of some passages in which directing the conduct, proceeding Osamuse, and Oidea, the principal from a faculty of determination, Greek words occur.

The more and that under the government of frequent meanings of Beauce are the heart. The interpretation of three, will, purpose, design, or inthis word according to the connex. tention, for the first class; for the ion and scope of the passages where second class is the object of one's it occurs, cannot fail to show the will, in general, without specifirecognition of the doctrine we have cation, or specifick command, stated before.

statute, or law;' for the third the Vbseems to have primarily the pleasure of mind is indicated. Almeaning of animal life, but it has though we distinguish three siga secondary meaning which indi. nifications of Beampiece they are all cates will. Take the following pas- directly or indirectly connected sages as a specimen of its occur- with the faculty or the exercise of rence in the latter sense. Exod. will; so that they all directly or xv. 9. "The enemy said, I will indirectly recognise the doctrine. pursue, I will overtake, I will di- We quote a few of the many vide the spoil; my lust shall be passages in which beampia is found, satisfied upon them.” Ps. xxvii. that we may present the varieties 12. “Deliver me not over unto of meaning intimated above. John the will of mine enemies.” Ps. xli. i. 13: “Who were born, not of 2. “Thou wilt not deliver him blood, nor of the will of the flesh, unto the will of his enemies.”— (oude εκ θεληματος σαρκος) nor of the Ezek. xvi. 27. “Behold, therefore, will of man, (oude ex Beamuelos avdeos,) I have stretched out my hand over but of God.” Okasua here must inthee, and have diminished their volve volition, whatever particular ordinary food, and delivered thee meaning may be given to its interunto the will of them that hate pretation. The intention of the inthee We need not multiply quo- spired historian is very plain: it is to ascribe the regeneration of those would express merely the exercise who received Christ solely to God, of will, would reach the meaning and to deny that it was effected of the Apostle in this place. by human agency, either by bloody It will be sufficient to cite two sacrifices offered for them, by na- or three passages more in which tural dissent, or by the determina- the verb Jenew is found applied to tion of man. Dennus is used to ex

volition. John v. 40, [ov] press the determination, or voli- ye will not come unto me that ye tion of God in the following pas- might have life." John viii. 44. sages, as well as many others. “Ye are of your father the devil, 1 Cor. i. 1: “ Paul called to be an and the lusts of your father (gedele apostle of Jesus Christ, through Foley] ye will do.”. Rev. xxii. 17. the will of God, δια θεληματος Θεου. “ And the spirit and the bride say, 2 Cor. i. 1, has the same phrase- come. And let him that heareth ology. Gal. i. 4, reads thus, " Who say, come. And let him that is [that is Chist] gave himself for athirst, come. And whosoever our sins, that he might deliver us [SE21] will, let him take the water from this present evil world, ac- of life freely." Every one according to the will of God, and quainted with his bible, will at our Father," *270 το θέλημα του once recollect that there are mulOsov. In Eph. i. 5, we have the titudes of passages where will is phrase, καλα την ευδοκιαν του θεληματος used in the same sense, to signify av70v,“ according to the good plea- the determination of the mind; or sure of his will;-in verse 9, TO to speak more specifically, to deMeucingloy tou Jeannealog avlov, “ the note the exercise of the faculty mystery of his will;" and in verse called will. As for command, sta11, την βουλεν τον θεληματος αυτου, tute or decree, we need not quote " the counsel of his own will.the passages where seanuse and These passages involve the idea of Seasw are used to indicate them. volition or exercise of the deter- The reader of the Greek Testamining faculty of God the Father. ment will readily perceive them, We refer to these passages to

and know how to interpret their show that wherever beampa is used, meaning: We leave the passages whether applied to God or man, it to speak for themselves on the plain involves the faculty, or exercise common sense principles of interof the faculty of determination. pretation. Confident that every These few are sufficient for our mind, unprejudiced by philosopresent purpose. Recur now to the phical speculation, will find obvi. application of Beamua to man's will. ously a recognition of the doctrine 1 Cor. xvi. 12: “As touching our which we have stated. We have brother Apollos, I greatly desired made our quotations few and our him to come unto you with the analysis brief, because we think brethren; but his will was not at all that the recognition of the princito come at this time,” xal Farles ples, is exceedingly plain, and beουκ ην θελημα ένα νυν ελθη. In Εph. cause we wished to reserve room ii. 3, os ampece is used for desires, in- in this article, briefly to compare cluding both pleasure and choice, some other suppositions with the or feelings of the heart, and voli same standard. tions of the will; ποιουν7ες τα θελη- There is a pretended philosoMalce tus cagxos xai tay drævotar,"ful- phy which represents the mind as filling the desires of the flesh and of consisting of exercises only, withthe mind.” The word is rendered out any permanently existing prindesires, in our English version, al- ciple. But this is so absurd on its though volitions would be more face, and so contradictory to the literal, because no word which whole current of the Scriptures,

that we will not stop gravely to tion to what we have already said examine its claims. It never can of the obvious distinction between be admitted, without setting aside heart and will, and the difference all legitimate rules of biblical in- in the nature of their exercises, we terpretation.

see in many passages a recognition Another scheme of philosophy, of the principle that the will is goworthy of more regard, blends to- verned by the affections. To the gether in one class, the exercises heart is ascribed a character of the heart and the will. But we evinced by its exercises, but behave shown conclusively that the longing to the principle, anteceScriptures do sometimes distin- dent to its development. It is the guish them, and ascribe qualities heart upon which the Lord lookto one class which cannot belong to eth; but why should he look upon the other. Between the source of it, if it has no moral character? affections, and the source of voli. Why should men be commanded tions, there is often a wide discri- to keep the heart with all dilimination in the holy Scriptures. gence, if it be without character? The heart is hard or soft, grieved or Besides the reason given in the joyful, pacified, or angry, but not so connexion, “for out of it are the is the will ever represented in the issues of life,” involves clearly the Bible. It would not express the character as belonging to the heart. meaning of the sacred writers of- The phrases hard, stony, new, and tentimes to substitute heart for evil heart, are all connected with a will, or will for heart. Take the permanent moral principle, not specimen from John i. 13, and read with exercises merely; and we it which were born not of the think " the hidden man of the heart of the flesh, nor of the heart heart” denotes a good or wicked of man”-and it will be readily principle. The ornament of this perceived that the sentiment is a hidden man" may relate to the changed. It might express a exercises of gracious affection, truth, but not the mind of the Spi- which proceed from the heart. If rit. Take many other passages we have not mistaken the princiwhich express the appropriate ex- ples of interpretation, the whole ercise of either faculty, and substi- current of the Scripture opposes tute one for the other, and the dis- the philosophy in question. crimination will be clearly seen. The mischievous theological inThere must be a different mean- Auence to which we refer, is at ing attached to the different terms present extensive in the church. heart and will in the passages The definition of the philosophy quoted in these articles, and in identifies it with the first princimany other passages, which the ples of Pelagianism. It would careful reader will readily observe. therefore be natural to expect its

But there is a philosophy which application to the same doctrines, we think is mischievous in its and its tendency to the same ertheological influence, denying all rors. The usual, and at present distinction of faculties, or rather popular theological form of the all moral character belonging to first principle is, that“ all holiness any principle or faculty of mind. and sin consist exclusively in voAccording to this philosophy, all luntary exercise.” This is subject moral character belongs to volun- to some variety of modification, tary exercises, and attaches not to according to the more full or partheir source. This scheme of tial understanding or adoption of philosophy subverts the plain exe- the principle. It is also applied gesis and common sense interpre- more or less extensively to the intation of the Scriptures. In addi- terpretation of the Bible, and ex

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